THE EFFECTS OF COUNSELING ON STUDENTS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS HIV/AIDS INFECTION. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING
The survey design method was used to assess the opinions of the respondents, using the questionnaire designed by the researcher.
The sample size for this study comprised one hundred twenty students who were randomly selected through stratified random sampling method.
The independent t-test was used to analyse the null hypotheses formulated for this study at 0.05 level of significance.
1. There is a significant effect of counselling on students’ attitude towards HIV/AIDS infection.
2. There is a significant relationship between counselling and students’ attitude towards HIV/AIDS infection.
3. There is a significant difference in the attitude of male and female students towards HIV/AIDS infection.
4. There is no significant relationship between negative and positive attitude of students towards HIV/AIDS infection.
Recommendations were made based on the findings.
1.1Introduction/Background to the Study
AIDS is an acronym for Acquired Immuno Deficiency syndrome a killer disease that progressively destroys organs of the body including the immune systems and the central nervous system. The disease is caused by a virus, the human immuno deficiency virus type I (HIV) according to World Health Organisation, (WHO, 1980).
The initial symptoms of HIV – I infection often resemble influenza or nomonucleosis and appear within a few days or weeks after exposure. These symptoms often disappear after several weeks. Prolonged disease period may last for ten years or more after initial infection, more commonly eight to ten years elapse before the onset of serious disease symptoms. During this later phase, the HIV-infected or (HIV positive) patient is said to have AIDS.
According to Aiken (1991) AIDS was first reported in 1981 by investigators in New York and California. Initially, most of the cases of AIDS in the United States were diagnosed in homo-sexuals who contacted the virus primarily through sexual relationships and intravenous drug use or by sharing contaminated hypodermic needles.
HIV/AIDS spread to endemic proportion in the 1980’s particularly in Africa where the disease might have originated from. The spread was likely facilitated by several factors which include increasing urbanization and long distance travel in Africa i.e. international travellers, changing sexual partners and intravenous drug users.
According to the United Nations (2004) report on AIDS, some 38 million people were living with HIV, approximately, 5 million people become injected annually and about 3 million people die each year from AIDS.