EFFECT OF MOTIVATION AND PRODUCTIVITY IN NIGERIA CIVIL SERVICE
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Rajput (2011) contends that the word motivation is derived from a Latin word “Mover” which literally means “to move” they defined motivation as” the individual desire to demonstrate the behavior and reflects willingness to expend effort” Motivation can be described as a goal – directed behavior. It concern with the factors that influence people to behave in certain ways. Motivation can be divided into extrinsic factor, which can be measures in monetary terms, such as salary and benefits, promotion and disciplinary action.
Extrinsic Motivation can have an immediate and powerful effect, but it will not necessary last long. Intrinsic motivation refers to internal factor such as job satisfaction, responsibility, freedom to act, scope to use and develop skills and abilities and challenging work and opportunities for development. Intrinsic motivators which are concerned with the quality of working life are likely to have a deeper and longer term effect. These two working life are likely to have a deeper and longer term effect. These two different aspects of motivation are connected each other and cannot be seen in isolation.
Motivation and productivity occupies a strategic and crucial position in human resource development and has constituted a powerful instrument of change in both public and private organization.
These prepositions constitute an essential frame work within which empirical study of civil service can be conducted at the local, state and federal levels. Invariably, it is an attitude in large scale organizations and also indispensable machinery min the operation of government in other words, efficiency and productivity of any government depends on the effective motivation and competency of its civil service. Working in the organization to meet worker needs affect the satisfaction, which the workers derive from their job.
The satisfaction that the workers derive from their job can affect their motivation to work. People are motivated by various factors of different times, according to (Wilkinson et al., 2007) the first factor is combination of individual perceptions of the expectations other people have of them, and their own expectations of themselves. This happens because people come into work as much as possible between organizational objectives and individual aspirations (Sulcas. P 2007). The essence of this is to ensure a situation where the individual is motivated while the organization is achieving established objectives.
The second factor deals with issue of self-images and concepts as well as life experiences and personality. These factors have to be positively motivated in the worker to yield proactive behavior. This can be achieved through a carefully planned reward system, which is a type of reinforcement directed at modifying people’s behavior.
Those who occupy management positions in organizations encourage civil servants basically through means of positive reinforcement. Positive reinforcement boosts favourable consequences that go a long way to encourage the repition of particular behavior (Adonisi, M, 2005). Therefore, important for the management to ensure that they motivate their employees to achieve the set goals and objectives of the organization.
The primary function of civil service in the implementation of government policies and programmes as approved by the competent organs of and /or structures of good authority to foster motivational growth and development. The structural basis of civil service commission, charged recruit in a civil capacity by the civil service commission, charged with the responsibility of exercising the executive authority of government and whose activities are guided by systematically interrelated pattern to achieve the complex objective off its organization.
Furthermore, it is a central concept in both public and private organization. An organization whether public or private is sustained by capital and labour, in consequence, where the productive process, the organization concerned will experience high productivity. The employee’s performance, on the other hand is dependent on certain variable, normally, professional and technical competent of the workers and motivation.
There is generalagreement among psychologist that man experience a variety of needs, these are considerable disagreement as to what, and these needs are and their relative importance (Van Rooyam, J. 2006). One of the basic problems in any organization is how to motivate people to work. Motivating people to work entails, meeting their needs. This is because the management of an organization can motivate its employees if it’s able to study the characteristic of employee and know what actually motivate them to productivity.