ELECTORAL MALPRACTICE ITS IMPACT ON GOOD GOVERNANCE IN NIGERIA: AN EXAMINATION OF 2007 GENERAL ELECTION IN AKWA IBOM STATE
- BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Nigeria is one of the developing countries in Africa with 36 State presently. By the period of colonization by British Colonialism. It is perhaps true to say that outright rigging of elections in Nigeria, began with the general election of 1956 which was the immediate election after the colonization by the British which ended in 1960. Before then, the ruling party was Nigerian People’s Congress (NPC) and the National Convention of Nigerian Citizens (NCNC) was collapse after the independence in 1960.
Each party had now formed a new alliance, the NCNC and the Action Group became United Progressive Grand Alliance while the (NPC) Northern Peoples Congress was widely believed in the West to have sponsored the spite of the Action Group, which aligned with Chief Ladoka Akintola’s Nigeria National Democratic Party (NNPP) to form the NNA.
Despite all party consensus to ensure a free and fair election of a meeting called by the former prime minister all agreement reached with the (UPGA) United Progressive Grand Alliance in sworn affidavits submitted to be the president of the Federal Republic showed how the agreement was lift to bans on the public meeting for rallies in the North were denied and mass arrest of their candidates and polling agents in the North.
Hence, despite the boycott, elections purportedly went on in Northern and Western Nigeria and the Federal Territory, Lagos where the NNA government were in control.
According to Nwabueze, “wholesale rigging” of election especially in regional elections in the Western Region of 1965, it was worse than that of the 1964 election. Nwabueze in his review of study note that the key agent of rigging election in dumping of ballot papers were the presiding officer and poll clerks at the polling stations.
Arikpo, in his own view of study for the development of electoral malpractice he further said in Development of modern Nigeria” recounted that “the most notorious example of this travesty was the case of a man who won election in one of the Owo constituencies, his NNDP opponent was declared the Victor, the announced that he had upon deep reflection he decided to join the NNDP a view day after announced was made by the Electoral Commissioner declared him the successful candidate and quietly dropped his that he had upon dropped his opponent.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Over the years, we have heard a lot about electoral violence in Nigerian society and it is a well known fact that this could not bring about the achievement of a good electoral conduct of election, in which a high rapid and sustainable development in the economy of a country (Nigeria) is being unstable and in requirement of a sustainable development.
From the forgoing issues, the reason why the researcher embark upon this research topic is to discover how electoral malpractice have been able to affect a good governance in Nigeria in order to achieve their set objectives.
Electoral malpractice is established by the political leaders and elites in order to destabilized political competition. The process of Electoral political competition. The process of electoral malpractice the problem here is the systematic violation of laws in which the culture of impurity is so pervasive that no one citizens can wonder what to do.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study is intended to:
- Assess the Electoral malpractices its impact on good governances in Nigeria.
- To discover the level of good governance in Nigeria
- To determine the rule of effective election in Nigeria
- To make necessary recommendations.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study of “Electoral malpractice its impact on good governance in Nigeria is significance because it tries to examine and assess the effect of electoral malpractice on good governance by the electorate.
This study is a set course for the purpose of developing electoral process in other to achieve a set goal and put a stop for electoral malpractice. It is also examine to set a specific recommendations for the reform of election administration and law, which will bring change within the political parties, in approaches to ending the competitive spiral of electoral misconduct and strategies for alleviating violence and conflict. The study would further act as a guideline to student in higher institution for the purpose of this research.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The focus of this study is to analyse the role and effectiveness and impact of electoral malpractice on good governance in Nigeria”, which reference shall be made from all available angle and materials within and outside the State.
Hence references will be drawn or made from other country of the world including report and assessment of World Bank.
1.6 METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY
This study is basically descriptive as result. It will rely on information drawn from secondary source the material used in this research was carefully collected from the following personal interview, textbooks, journals, newspapers seminar papers, lecture note and other documenting materials as well as Internet.
1.7 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
There are several theories and approaches in Political Science that could deployed to analysis the role play by Electoral malpractice institutional theory is this focuses applied in this research work on the various governmental institution, describing their structures, organisation, duties and expected functions with little attention paid to the institutional characteristics of governmental policies (Abdulsalami). The assumption in the theory is that public policy is often initiated formed, decided and implemented by government institutions and that institution analysis concentrating on structures, arrangements, procedures and relationship with other institution can help in understanding policy formulation and implementation.
In Nigeria using this theory, the focus policy analysis at the National level will be the Executive (the president and the executive council) the legislative body (Senate and House of Representatives) and the judiciary (courts). Thus, the politics of Nigeria revolves around these institutions. Therefore, an understanding of public policy in Nigeria would require a study of the constitution as well as the operation and relationships among these institutions.
1.8 DEFINITION OF THE TERM
In this research project it is important to note that a single word may have more than one or two demotion of different uses. Therefore there is a necessity at this point to explain some of the key concepts or words as used in thus assessment or research work. Also in order to avoid the problem of ambiguity some key word such as Electoral, Election, Governance, reform, malpractice, rigging, democracy and corruption.
Electoral: This are groups of people or organisation that comes together in order to elect a person and relatively for the purpose of an election. It is also a group of people who are choosen to represent the members of a political party in elections of a particular leader.
Election: Is the act of electing candidates to represent the people of a given country in the parliament.
Governance: Is a process or an activity of governing a country or controlling a company or an organisation in which the affairs of a country is governed.
Reform: This is a process of changing the behavioural system, location organisation law and mode of worshipping.
Malpractices: It is a way of careless, wrong or illegal behaviour while in professional work. It is also the act of being unfair, unsatisfied work law abusement and wrong out of an organisaiton or individual.
Rigging: It is a way of influencing an organisation, society individual or group of people for example rigging in electoral process.
Democracy: Is a process or system of government organized in accordance with the principles of popular sovereignty, political and Economic Equality popular consultation and majority rule.
Popular Sovereignty: This is the process where people have the power to elect or choose their leader.
Political and Economic Equality: Is a situation were all the vote must be equal and also the contestant must be financially capable for the task without depending on people.
Corruption: Finally is a way of dishonest or illegal behaviour it is a bad character it also an immoral act of an organisation society or individual.
1.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research is organized in four different chapter in which chapter one introduce the work chapter two focuses on the literature review. Chapter three focuses on the electoral malpractice its impact on good governance in Nigeria: A Case study and the examination of 2007 General Election in Akwa Ibom State and the poison of Rigging Election. Chapter four deals with summary conclusion and recommendation.