ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM YAM PEELS
This research was set out to investigate the microbiological and physiochemical parameters of yam peels, these were carried out using standard methods and the result obtained showed that the total bacteria counts of the fresh yam peels was 3.52x105efuml on day 0 of analysis. Further analysis in subsequent days during fermentation revealed a gradual increase in the colony forming units of bacteria to 5.93105efuml on day 3. For the microbial counts of fungi present in the yam peels there was an increase from day 0 to day 1 but decrease in day 2 and further decreased in day 3. The PH of the fresh yam peels was 5.3 on the first day of the analysis which showed a gradual reduction throughout the period of analysis and ethanol yield was oml/100g sample on the first day of analysis, this increased to 6.32ml/100g sample on day 3 of analysis. The standard sugar was prepared using a lmg/ml solution of the commercially available reducing sugar in the sample in distilled water. The concentration of the sugar present in the sample was calculated from the intercept of a graph of absorption of 500NM versus weight of sugar. 50ml of the yam peel was mixed with 20ml of orthophosphoric acid. The mixture was stirred, stopped and left overnight at room temperature to set free all bounded hydrocyanic acid. This was done from day 0, day 1, day 2, and day 3 yam peel sample respectively.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Chapter one – introduction
Background of the study
Statement of problem
Purpose of study
Significance of the study
Scope of study
Definition of terms
Review Of Related Literature
Source of Sample/Method of Data Collection
Method of Data Analysis
Presentation, Analysis and Discussion of result
Discussion of findings
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The world is becoming more complex and more waste are generated everyday due to the increasing population without making adequate preparation for means of proper disposal thereby constituting nuisance to the environment liens the need to convert some of these waste (yam peel) to useful product (ethanol). Yam are grown in limited areas of the tropics, particularly in the humid parts of West Africa and the Caribbean. The plant requires good well drained soil and ample and well distributed rainfall. They are labour intensive; require not only starting to support their vines, all of this increase the stock production. They can produce as much as (90) tones, but yam are highly prized food and current production fall short of demand, it is unlikely that they will ever compete with yamfor fuel alcohol purpose, yam is a fermentable starch per hectare. They require better soil and water, but have a wide range of latitude and attitude and being a prostrate plant can withstand widely condition. Yam peel conking a high proportion of starch, and it is possible to obtain relatively high yield of 40-50 tons per hectare without expensive fertilizer or supplementary irrigation on soil. Soil unsuitable for growing more demanding crop.
Although production level under traditional farming system are around 10 tons per hectare research, into improved varieties and cultural practices has shown that annual yields of 80-100 tons are theoretically possible. The plant is resistant to pest and can be store in the ground for several months after maturity until it is needed, once harvested the storage life of the peel which is not a storage organ or dormancy is limited, and in many countries it is processed for storage by clipping or flaking and drying large amount of dried yams are exported to Europe from Thailand and other countries as a source of carbohydrate for animal feed. These characteristics makes it an excellent small holder crop and one of the most promising sources of starch for alcohol fuel. Also, the foliage can be used for animal feed (and human food in some culture).
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The problems associated with this study includes;
Are there clean ethanol (bio-ethanol) that do not have polluting effect on the environment in Nigeria.
Ethanol produce from petroleum (fossil fuel) do have negative effect on the environment.
Are there sufficient yams of farmers to cultivate and supply yam for the production of ethanol.
Most people are afraid that utilizing yam peels for the production of ethanol will lead to food shortage since people also utilize yam as flour.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to produce ethanol from yam peel (yam waste).
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The result of this project, it will enlighten the people about the usefulness of yam peel (yam waste). This information will assist the people about more waste that are generated every day due to the increase population without making adequate preparation for means of proper disposal thereby constituting nuisance to the environment liens the need to convert some of these waste (yam peel) to useful product (ethanol).
To deal with the production of ethanol from yam peel certain question where asked these include;
How can ethanol be produced from yam peel (yam waste)
Will the ethanol produced from yam peel be of reasonable quantity?
SCOPE OF THE STUDY (DELIMITATION)
The study will focus its attention on the use of yam peel (yam waste) to produce ethanol since yam peels are easily obtained from all waste dumps in Benin from the dump since they are of no use to the people that dump them there.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
The meaning of some terms used in the study is explained below;
Yam: The large root of a tropical plant that is cook as food, it is meant to eat.
Sufficient: To do something enough for a particular purpose.
Ethanol: The type of alcohol in alcoholic drinks are used as fuel or solvent.