PROXIMATE AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC BARK EXTRACT OF TRICHILIA PRIEUREANA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY
1.0 INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW
Africa is endowed with so many plants that can be used for medicinal purposes. In fact, out of the approximated 6400 plant species used in tropical Africa, more than 4,000 are used as medicinal plants (Stanley, 2009). So many medicinal plants have been used by traditional medicine practitioners in Nigeria for the treatment of different diseases. Traditional medicinal plants have positive role of in the prevention or control of some metabolic disorders like diabetes, heart diseases and certain types of cancers (Zhang, 1996). One of the great advantages of these medicinal plants is that these are easily available and have no side effects (Mehta, 1982).
Plants are living organisms belonging to the kingdom plantae. They include familiar organisms such as trees. They are typically characterized by their green colour, which include common groups such as trees, herbs, flowers and fern and algae. Worldwide trend towards the utilization of natural plant remedies has created an enormous need for information about the properties and uses of the medicinal plants. Medicinal plants play a major role in the health care sector of developing nations for the management of diseases. Thus herbal medicines have a prominent role to play in the pharmaceutical markets and health care sector of the 21st century (Annan and Houghton, 2007).
In recent years, there has been a gradual revival of interest in the use of medicinal plants in developing countries because herbal medicines have been reported safe and without any adverse side effect especially when compared with synthetic drugs. Thus, a search for new drugs with better and cheaper substitutes from plant origin are a natural choice. The medicinal value of these plants lie in some chemical substances that produce a definite physiological action on the human body (Edeoga et al., 2005).
Phytochemicals are bioactive chemical compounds found naturally in plants that protect against diseases. They are non nutritive compounds (secondary metabolite) that contribute to flavor colour. Many phytochemicals have antioxidant activity and reduce the risk of different diseases known, for example carotenoids (from carrots) and flavonoids (present in fruits and vegetables).
Minerals are required by living organisms and can help to prevent occurrence of some diseases. Some sources state that sixteen chemical elements are required to support human biochemical processes by serving, structural and functional role as well as electrolyte.
Trichilia prieureana is a medium-sized tree in the moist forest, more shrubby in gallery forests, drier forests and savanna regions (Lovett et al., 2006). It is a tree up to 20m high, often low-branched and sometimes with low buttresses. It has its bark pale brown and rather flaky. It is called Monkey apple (english) and Mtimaji. Its leaves are impari-pinnate with opposite leaflets with the rachis slighty winged. The fruits are hardly stalked with sub-globose capsule. Its seeds are dark brown, glossy and covered with a red aril.
1.1 Historical features of Trichilia prieureana
The trichilia genus consist of about 70 species, mainly distributed in tropical America and Africa, of which 43 species occur in Brazil. Chemical studies have revealed the presence of limonoids as the main bioactive agents (champagne et al., 1992).
Trichilia prieureana is a medium-sized tree in the forest, shrubby in gallery forests and savanna regions (Bolza et al., 1972). It is called monkey apple (english), banyunkikiet (senegal) and Urera (yoruba). T. prieureana belongs to the plantae family, the order ‘sapindales’ and meliaceae family.
Trichilia prieureana is a medium-sized tree in the moist forest, more shrubby in gallery forests, drier forests and savanna regions; as a tree to 20 m high and 40 cm, often low-branched, sometimes with small buttresses. Its bark is pale brown and rather flaky with slash fibrous, contoured, slightly scented. Its leaves are impari-pinnate with opposite leaflets, the rachis slightly winged.