EVALUATING THE STATUS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN DABBAN, LAVUN LGA, NIGER STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHARMACY
1.1 Background to the Study
Human Schistosomiasis (Bilhariziasis) is second only to Malaria in Sub–Sahara Africa causing severe morbidity. Killing 280, 00 people each year in, the Africa region alone (Shashieet al.,2005). Of the world 207 million estimated cases of Schistosomiasis, 93% occur in Sub Sahara African.With Nigeria having the highest burden of schistosomiasis in the region (Humpheyet al.,2012).Studies have indicated that Urinary Schistosomiasis is a major health problem in the rural areas of Middle East and most African countries. It remains as one of the major health problems facing developing children. The endemicity of the disease in many rural areas are attributed to ignorance, poor living condition, inadequate sanitation, water contact activity with snail infected rivers, streams and ponds (WHO, 2003).
Urinary Schistosomiasis is significant due to Schistosomahaematobiumwhich causes significant clinical morbidity and disability in the endemic countries of Africa and Middle East. Recent report of the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that about 779 million people in 76 Tropical and subtropical countries are at risk of Schistosomiasis (Steinmannet al.,2006). Over 207 people in these countries are infected; of this 120 million are symptomatic, with 20 million having severe clinical disease (Houmosouet al., 2012).Atleast 261 million people required preventive treatment for Schistosomiasis and more than 40 million people were treated for Schistosomiasis in 2013 (WHO, 2015).Schistosomiasis is a parasistic blood – dwelling fluke worms belonging to the genus Schistosoma; the genus Schistosoma contains six species that are of major pathological importance to man, Schistosomahaematobium, S. mansoni, S. japonicum, S. mekongi, S. intercalaturn, and S. guineersir (Webster et al., 2006). The species differ in their final location in the human host, the species of the intermediate (Snail) host, they use in their life cycle, the pathology they induce, and the number in size and shape of the eggs they produce.
The severity of vesicular (urinary) Schistosomiasis, caused by Schistosomahaematobium, is found throughout Middle East and Africa (WHO, 1990). Severity of the disease alerted the Federal Ministry of Health to Establish the National Expert Committee for surveillance of urinary Schistosomiasis in August, 1998, in order to determine the prevalence of the disease rapidly to enable the government to develop feasible control strategies (Adeoye, 1993). Although the occurrence of urinary Schistosomiasis in Nigeria has been documented in several years, its distribution remains inadequately understood (Uwaezuokoet al., 2007).