THE EXTRACTION OF OIL FROM LOCAL SEED. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
The seminar topic, “Extraction of oil from local seeds” is based on the study of palm oil and groundnut oil from palm fruits and groundnut seeds respectively, which are the local seeds. Oil is an organic substance which is an essential constituent of plants and animals. Extraction is a technique used for collecting oil from local seeds. The three major methods of extracting oil from local seeds are; Rendering, mechanical pressing of Extraction of oil fro local seeds involve, grinding, boiling denusking, and skimming off of the oil. The factors that affect the rate of extraction of oil from local seeds include Temperature, particle size, nature of solvent and Agitation. Oil can be produced on a small scale using the traditional method which involves dehusking, cooking and skimming off while the production on a large scale involves the use of machines such as Expellers, Ghania, etc. The adoption of a traditional method is tedios and time consuming while the mechanized method saves time and reduces stress. The oil Extracted can be used for making soaps, as an ingredient in other foods such as baked or fried goods. Finally, the palm kernel is used in making P.K.O The waste from the groundnut oil extraction can be used for making a snack-like food called “kulikuli” while the chaff from the palm oil extraction can be use as a source of fuel ie to ignite the burning of firewood.
WHAT ARE OILS?
An oil belongs to a general organics group called “lipid”. It is a well-defined class of an organic substance which is an essential constituent of all forms of plants and animals. Oils are soluble in organic solvents such as ether but insoluble in water. Oil can be grouped into edible and non-edible depending on the amount of specified matters and impurities it contains. Owing to the fact that the used of oil as a raw material for the production of different useful products such as soap, margarine, etc. has increased tremendously, calls for the need for a seminar report on the extraction of oil from a local seed such as groundnut oil from its seed.
NATURE OF EXTRACTION
This is defined as a technique in which a solute distributes itself between two immiscible solvents as a result of its different solubilities in the two solvents. It is the prefential solution of one or more constituents of a solid mixture by contact with a liquid solvent. This is a unit operation which is one of the oldest in the chemical industries. The success of an extraction and the technique to be used will vary frequently depending upon any prior treatment which may be given to the solid.