EFFECT OF HibiscussabdariffaCALYX EXTRACTION REPRODUCTIVE HORMONES IN MALE WISTAR RAT. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY
Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (Roselle) is an annual shrub commonly used to make jellies, jams, beverages and used traditionally as a medicinal plant for the treatment of various ailments. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx on male rat reproductive hormones. Twenty (20) male wistar rat weighing 0.25±0.2 kg were grouped into one water control group and three experimental groups. While the water control group received 1.0 ml of water for 28 days, the experimental group were administered 250 mg/kg oral doses of aqueous extract of H.sabdariffa calyx. The effect on the basal levels of follicle stimulating hormone, testosterone, prolactin, luteinizing hormone and estradiol were conducted in experimental animals. The 28 days oral administration of aqueous extract of H.sabdariffa L. is associated with a decreased circulating plasma levels of follicle stimulating hormone, Testosterone and prolactin in male wistar rat compared with the control group. The study did not show a change in the plasma levels of both circulating luteinizing hormone and estradiol following 28 days oral administration of H.sabdariffa calyx to the experimental animal. Moreover, Marked histological changes were detected on testes of the experimental animals after 28 days of administration. This may indicate that H.sadariffa calyx extract can cause both morphological and physiological testicular damage. The study concluded that H. sabdariffa calyx extract at a dose of 250 mg/kg caused mild effects on rat reproductive hormones.
Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are natural or synthetic compounds that have the ability within the body to alter endocrine functions often through mimicking or blocking endogenous hormones (James et al., 2013). These actions on the endocrine system have resulted in developmental deficits in various invertebrate and aquatic species (Crain et al., 2007; Elango et al., 2006) and mammals (Christopher et al., 2012). Exposures in adulthood have consequences but fetal and early life exposures appear to have more severe effects that persist through life (Rubin and Soto, 2009). Among these classes of chemicals are phytoestrogens that show effects suggestive of estrogenicity, such as binding to the estrogen receptors, induction of specific estrogen-responsive gene products, stimulation of estrogen receptor(s) and positive breast cancer cell growth (James et al., 2013). Through these interactions by acting as agonists or antagonists, EDCs are able to alter the activity of response elements of genes, block natural hormones from binding to their receptors, or in some cases increase the perceived amount of endogenous hormone in the body by acting as a hormone mimic to its receptor (Ze-hua et al., 2010).