THE CONSTRUCTION OF SAND FILTER FOR PORTABLE WATER FILTRATION WITH STAINLESS STEEL MATERIAL. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPIC ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
The project constructed was sand filter; equipment for portable water filtration. This was constructed using a mild steel material. This was because of the excellent high qualities of mild steel such as; durability tensile strength, high corrosion resistance and also relative in cost compare to other special alloyed materials, like stainless steel.
The send filter was chosen to be in cylindrical shap, to ensure a maximum pressure for proper filtration to occur and avoid edges that could attract dirt.
The tap, which was filled in the bottom section of the equipment, was used to run out the filtrate.
Finally the construction of sand filter was successful having an overall dimension in millimeters (mm) with a filtering capacity of 25 liters per day and may be conveniently used by small scale industry.
Filtration is the removal of solid particles from a fluid by passing the fluid through a filtering medium or septum, on which the solids are deposited, example of such filtering medium is known as sand filter.
The fluid may be a liquid or gas; the valuable stream from the filter may be fluid, the solid on both. Sometimes it is neither as when waste solid, must be separated from waste prior to disposal, in chemical laboratory.
In chemical laboratory, filtration is often carried out in a form of buchnor funnel and liquid is sucked through a thin layer of particles using a source of vacuum or even sampler cases, the suspension is pored into a conical funnel filtered unit a filter perper.
Generally, a thick layer of particles or solid particles as to be formed and in order to achieve a high rate of passage of fluid through the solids, high pressure will be required and it will be necessary to provide a far greater area.
Fluid flows through a filter medium by virtue of pressure differences across the medium. The volume of the suspension to be handled will very from the extremely large quantities involved in water purification and are handling in the miming industry to relative small quantity in the fine chemical industry where the variety of solids would be considered.
For large scale filtration, cloth or canvas is frequently used as the medium, and the liquid is forced by pressure through the bed of the solid that collects impurities in the liquid. A common method of large scale and domestic filtration is the purification of water by collecting some suspended penticle on a bed composed of coarse gravel covers with fine layers of sand. The water sinks down through gravel and is run off by gravity. The equipment used is the sand filter.
However, filters are divided into three major groups such as cake fitters, clarifying filters, and gross flow filters; there are different types of filters such as pressure filters, rotary filters, cake filters, string discharge filters, centrifugal filters, granular filters and send filter.