GOVERNMENT INTERNAL AUDIT ACCOUNTABILITY IN MINISTRIES / EXTRA-MINISTERIAL DEPARTMENT. A CASE STUDY OF THE OFFICE OF THE AUDITOR-GENERAL OF ENUGU STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ACCOUNTING
This study is intended to find out the impact of government internal audit and accountability in ministries and Extra – ministerial in Nigeria context specifically. The literature review describes the various internal audit and accountability in ministries and extra-ministries and efficient application so that the funds general within these entities are properly utilized and accounted for by the responsible officials. The arrangement of the topic discussed in reviewing the literature was designed to supported the hypothesis which form the basis of the study.
background of the study
the practices of auditing originated from the necessity to impose some system of check upon persons whose business involves to record the receipt and disbursement of money on behalf of theirs. However, due to the crudeness of accounting methods in the early stages of civilization individuals checked accounts for themselves. The impetus given to trade and commerce in the 15th century by the Renanssance resulted to the discovery of a more scientific system of accounting and in 1494 LUCCA PACIOL, an Italian publisher of the principle of Double Entries Book-keeping in Venice. Thus, by this discovery it because possible to record all sort of merchandise transactions involving all matters of accounts and this development resulted to the application of Audit on these records.
The mechanical invention of the Eighteenth centuries which lead to the industrial revolution coupled with increased need for financial assistance to finance ambigions projects explained the emergence of several joint stock companies and corporate under-takings utilizing enormous capital under the management of few individuals. Under these circumstances the advantages to be gained by utilizing the services of professional auditor were apparent to be commercialized publicly, generally to force the operator of these enterprises to account for the results of all transactions under-taking by them, on the company behalf during the period of stewardship.
In order to attest for the emergence of auditing as a profession, it is widely accepted that autonomous expertise and the service ideal are not most distributive attributes of a profession, together with the existence of a systematic body of knowledge and authority recognized by the client or user. All these have been defined for and are true of auditing.
The need for auditing mostly government audit exist in the operations of government and institutions. Based on the above management, burden has become of greater importance because of wider delegation of authority and responsibility.