ASSESSMENT OF LUBRICANT CHARGE ON SOIL PROPERTIES IN MECHANIC VILLAGE
TABLE OF CONTENT
Cover page – – – – – – – – – i
Title page – – – – – – – – – – ii
Declaration – – – – – – – – – iii
Certification – – – – – – – – – iv
Dedication – – – – – – – – – v
Acknowledgement- – – – – – – – – vi
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – vii
- Introduction – – – – – – – – 1
- Literature Review/Conceptual Framework – – 2
2.1 Effect of Spent (Used) Engine oil in a Mechanic Workshop 4
2.2 Effect of Indiscriminate Disposal of Spent Engine Oil – 6
2.2.1 General Hazard and Toxicity – – – – 12
2.3 Additives in Lubricant oil and its Oxidant mechanism – 14
2.4 Composition of used engine oil – – – – – 15
2.5 Assessing the Workshop Risk – – – – – 18
2.6 Contaminant in Spent Engine Oil – – – – 20
2.7.1 Recycling of Spent Engine Oil and its Processes – – 20
2.7.2 Proper Storage for Recycling – – – – – 22
2.7.3 Benefit of Recycling – – – – – – 22
2.8 Treatment and Disposal of Residual Hazardous Waste after Recycling of Spent Engine Oil. – – – – – – 22
2.9 Prevention of Spent Engine Oil Pollution – – – 23
2.10 Need for Regulation and Legislation in Controlling Spent Engine Oil – – – – – – – – – – 24
3.1 Conclusion – – – – 25
3.2 Recommendation – – – – – – – 25
The word or term Spent (Used) Engine oil refers to any lubricant that has served it main purpose in vehicles, tricycles, motorcycles, and generator etc and has been withdrawn out from its area of application therefore considering it not fit again in the vehicle until maybe recycle/treated in others words, it is obtained after servicing of cars, generator, trucks etc (Agbogidi, 2011). The is because during its use the oil comes in contact with metal particle dirt, water and other impurities which contaminate it. Because of this reason, and also the fact that oil may contain other additive such as rust inhibitors and stabilizers, it is classified as a hazardous material and must be handled like one (Agbogidi and Egbuchua, 2010).
These spent (Used) engine oil contains a lot of different kind of toxic substances which causes detrimental effects on the soil and the ecosystem at large. The used engine oil when present in the soil create an unsatisfactory condition for life in the soil properties this is due to the poor aeration of the contaminated soil moreover this could inturn affect the growth, yield and general performance of plants in the area of contamination (Atuanya, 1987).
However, proper treatment of this used oil should is highly recommended or enforced for individual or cooperate bodies of artisans that owns a workshop before it is discarded into the environment because the environment support living and non-living.
- LITERATURE REVIEW/CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
Pollution from spent engine oil is one of the most serious environmental problems in most part of the country and the world at large especially in developing nations like Nigeria where it is even more widespread than crude oil spillage and pollution due to improper disposal methods. These spent engines oil are often obtained during servicing and subsequently draining from automobile and generators engine. Nigeria alone account for more than 87 million litres of spent lubricant annually (Nwankwo and Fedi, 1988; NDES, 1999). Adequate attention has not been given to it’s proper disposal (NDES, 1999).
The soil is the part of the earth which supports animals and microbial life and thus owes nutritional duties to them (Baker, 1970). Oil spillage in agricultural lands and other ecosystems are widely reported (Bazbaruah et al 1994). When the soil is polluted by oil, the effect range from blanketing of the soil to the displacement of pore space in the soil this modifies the rate of gaseous exchange and destroys soil texture (Bazbaruah at al, 1994). And also used engine oil has been indicated in certain physiological and morphological aberrations in plant (Amundu and Omole 1993). This is due to it’s phyto-toxic effect on plants, causing severe injuries leading to the yellowing and shedding of leaves and even delaying fruit maturation (Atuanya 1987)
Abioye et al (2012) reported that used engine oil disposal can be more environmentally damaging than crude oil pollution. This is because of the additives and contaminants that are present in the used oil, and this can or may cause both short and long term effect if they are allowed to enter the environment through water ways or soil (Anoliefe and Vwioko, 2001). Crude oil and used engine oil penetrates and accumulate in plants thus causing damaging to cell membrane and leakages of cell content, and this also makes soil properties unsatisfactorily for plants growth (Cut forth et al; 1985).
Agbogidi (2011) also reported that spent engine oil is the commonest soil contaminant in the rural areas of Nigeria where Agriculture and Farming forms the main stay of the rural inhabitant. These used oil contains toxic material inducing heavy metals that could affect growth, yield and general performance of plant (Agbogidi and Enbuchua,2010). Spent engine oil is a common and toxic environmental contaminant which is not naturally found in the environment (Dominguez-Rosado and Pichtel, 2004). In addition, the spent engine oil is also released into the environment from the exhaust system during engine use and due to engine leaks (Anoliefo and Edegbai, 2000, Anoliefo and Vwioko, 2003) Another study shows that there is contamination of soil by used lubricating oil and is rapidly increasing due to global increment in the usage of petroleum product (Mandri and Lin, 2007).
Environmental pollution with petro-chemical products and petroleum products has attracted much attention in recent decades and also the presence of different types of automobiles and machinery has resulted in an increase in the use of lubricating oil. And the spillage of these used oil or pouring it on purpose, contaminate our natural environment with hydrocarbon (Husain et. al., 2008). However, a prolong exposure of used oil on the soil can cause various hazard to the living and non-living organism.
2.1 EFFECT OF SPENT (USED) ENGINE OIL IN A MECHANIC WORKSHOP
Automobile workshops are an important component of the service industry, the most significant environmental impact associated with existing workshop is the seeping of used engine oil into the soil, contamination of the soil by oil cause it to lose it’s useful properties such as Fertility, water-holding capacity, permeability and binding capacity (Odjegba and Sadiq 2002). Used engine oil contaminated site like the mechanic workshop is aesthetically unpleasant, it affects the growth of plants and microbial diversity and when it seeps into the ground water, it renders it polluted and unfit for purpose, and also aquatic lives around are also not spared of this trend as there abound a tendency for drop in fish and other aquatic organism population.
Spent engine oil when present in the soil creates an unsatisfactory condition for life in the soil, which is due to the poor penetration of air it cause in the soil by the lowering of soil pH as well (Atuanya, 1987). The used engine oil contains a lot of toxic substances which include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and these are known as cause of cancer. In addition, tiny pieces of metal from engine wear and tear such as lead, Zinc and Arsenic, make their way into Lubricants further contributing to the polluting potential of used motor oil which eventually pollutes the entire workshop even our environment as a whole.
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ASSESSMENT OF LUBRICANT CHARGE ON SOIL PROPERTIES IN MECHANIC VILLAGE
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