MALARIA AND HELMINTH INFECTION IN PREGNANCY AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO ANEMIA AT FEDERAL TEACHING HOSPITAL GOMBE
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of malaria and helminth infection in pregnancy and their relationship with anaemia at booking at the Federal Teaching Hospital Gombe.
Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 192 pregnant women who booked for antenatal care at the Federal Teaching Hospital Gombe between August 1, 2015, and March 31, 2016. Socio-demographic data were collected through a structured questionnaire. Blood samples were collected and thick and thin blood films made, stained and examined for malaria parasites under a light microscope using x100 objective lens with oil immersion. Wet mount was prepared from the stool specimen using direct smear method with normal saline and iodine preparation, and the concentration procedure using formol/ether for the identification of ova of helminths. Data obtained was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. The results are presented in frequency tables and figures.
Results: The prevalence of malaria, helminth, and their co-infection at booking were 24.5%, 0.5% and 0.5% respectively while the prevalence of anaemia at booking was 16.7%. Malaria and helminth co-infection accounted for 3.1% of the study population with anaemia while 75% of those with anaemia had malaria infection alone. The helminth infection identified in this study was Ascaris lumbricoides. There was a statistically significant relationship between malaria and helminth coinfection, and the area of residence (p= 0.036).
Conclusion: The prevalence of malaria and helminth co-infection was very low and had no statistically significant relationship with anaemia. Malaria infection was mainly associated with anaemia at booking.
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
Background to study
Statement of problem
Justification of the study
Scope of the Study
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
Anaemia in pregnancy
Causes Of Anaemia In Pregnancy
Public Health Importance of Malaria and helminth parasite
Susceptibility of Pregnant Women to Malaria
Effects Of Anaemia On Pregnancy Outcome
Effect of anaemia on maternal morbidity and mortality
Effect of maternal anaemia on birth weight
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY
Sample Size Determination
Blood and Stool Sample Collection
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Background to study
Parasitic infection during pregnancy is a major cause of anaemia in Africa . Malaria and helminthiases are co-endemic especially in subSaharan Africa, and there is an extensive overlap between the area of malaria and helminth infection in Africa [1,2]. Their co-infection is not uncommon, and its additive effect may lead to worsening anaemia and other morbidities, this could have dire consequences on pregnancy [1,2].
According to the World Health Organization (WHO) estimate, there were 212 million new cases of malaria worldwide in 2015 (148304million), with Africa contributing 90% of the global cases of malaria. About 429,000 (235,000 – 639,000) deaths occurred from malaria worldwide, most of these deaths occurred in Africa (92%) . Nigeria is one of the most endemic countries for malaria, and the susceptibility to this infection is increased by pregnancy . An increased risk of malaria during pregnancy was observed over 60 years ago,6 and besides young children, pregnant women remain the main high risk group for malaria in endemic areas. Frequency and severity of malaria are greater in pregnant women, than in non-pregnant women, and causes serious adverse effects including abortion, low birth weight and maternal anaemia. Incidentally malaria infection is more rampant among the primigravidae and secundigravidae than the Multigravidae.