IMPACT OF PLANNING AND CONTROL AS A MANAGEMENT FUNCTION ON THE SURVIVAL OF SMALL SCALE BUSINESS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
This project is all about assessing the impact of planning and controlling as a management function on the survival of small scale business.
Management is universal in the modern world. Every organization requires the making of decision, the coordination of activities, deciding in advance when, why how and who does what, setting of standards, measuring performance against standard and reviewing the standards.
Numerous managerial activities have their own particular approach to specific types of problems which fall under headings such as production and operation management human resources management, management of health delivery system and others
According to Nwachukwu (2007) management is the act of getting things done through and with others.
Another definition by Launer (1999) he refers to management as the corner stone of organization effectiveness and is concerned with arrangements for the carrying out of organizational processes and the execution of work.
Kountz (2006) management is an operational process initially best dissected by analyzing the management functions. The five essential managerial functions are planning, organizing, staffing, directing, leading and controlling.
These tasks of management are interrelated and actually dove tail into each other. Planning sets the stage by helping the organization to determine where it wants to go (objectives) and how to get there (strategies and tactics). These objectives and strategies determine the type of organizational structure most suitable for the organization.
Organization structures are designed to fit the strategies which are meant to achieve the objective and both strategies and objectives are the outcome of planning.
There is no human endeavour that does not require proper management for it to function efficiently. For every type of organization either government establishment or private enterprise, there is need for qualified managers to handle its activities.
Management and organizations are seen as the product of their historical and social times and place and to understand the evolution of management theory in terms of how people wrestled with matters of relationship at a particular time in history. The lesson here is to learn from the trials and tribulation of those who have preceded us in steering the fortunes of formed organization.
It is now obvious to every one that, of the factors that are necessary for economic take off, none is to be stressed more often than management characteristically, the developing countries are known for their low technological progress and extremely low labour productivity. A realistic approach to the development of these countries call for qualified high level manpower especially at the management level. In present day organizations it is the manager that determines the appropriate technology required and the best way to efficiently and effectively utilize all types of resources, be it physical or human.