THE PARENTAL MONITORING AND RELIGIOUS ACTIVITIES ON SEXUAL ABSTINENCE. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING
1.1 Background to the Study
Sexual intercourse or coitus or copulation, is closely the insertion and thrusting of male’s penis, usually when erect into a female’s vagina for the purpose of sexual pleasure or reproduction; also known as vaginal intercourse or vaginal sex (Cecie, Ada, Irving & Kar, 2010). Other forms of penetrative sexual intercourse include penetration of the anus by the penis (anal sex), penetration of the mouth by the penis or oral penetration of the vulva or vagina (oral sex), sexual penetration by the fingers (fingering), and penetration by use of a strap-on dildo (Rutter & Steinberg, 2004). These activities involve physical intimacy between two or more individuals and are usually used among humans solely for physical or emotional pleasure and commonly contribute to human bonding (Richard & Fedwa, 2007). A variety of views concern what constitutes sexual intercourse or other sexual activity (Douglas & Nancy, 2008) which can also impact views on sexual health (O’leary, 2002).
The term sex, often shorthand for sexual intercourse, can mean any form of sexual activity (Randall & Byers, 2003). Because people can be at risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections during these activities (Daouglas, Ann, Fedwa & Randall, 2007) though the transmission risk is significantly reduced during non-penetrative sex (Keath, Wayne & Nilamadhab, 2005), safe sex practice is advised (Dianne, 2008) various jurisdictions have placed restrictive laws against certain sexual acts, such as incest, sexual activity with minors, extra marital sex, prostitution, sodomy, rape and zoophilia. Religious beliefs also play a role in personal decision about sexual intercourse or other sexual activity such as decisions about virginity (Daouglas, Ann, Fedwa & Randall, 2007) as well as legal and public policy matters.
Religious views on sexuality vary significantly between different religions and sects of the same religion, though there are common themes, such as prohibition of adultery. Reproductive sexual intercourse between non-human animal is more often termed copulation, and sperm may be introduced into the female’s reproductive tract in non-vaginal ways among the animals, such as by cloacal copulation. For most non-human mammals, mating and copulation occur at the point of estrus (the most fertile period of time in the female’s reproductive cycle), which increases the chances of successful impregnation (Lloyd, Rutter & Ann, 2007; Jared, 2005). However, bonobos, dolphins and chimpanzees are known to engage in sexual intercourse regardless of whether or not the female is in estrus, and to engage in sex act with some sex partners (Hales, Ann, & Weiner, 2010) like human engaging in sexual activity primarily for pleasure (Carpenter, 2005), this behaviour in the aforementioned animals is also presumed to be for pleasure (Fawcett, 2008), and contributing factor to strengthening their social bonds (Laura, 2005).