PRODUCTION OF WOOD ADHESIVE. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
Adhesive is a substance that holds materials together by surface attachment, while wood adhesive is a substance that is used to hold plywood for furniture works. This substance is essential and has universal applications. Thus the aim of this research work is to produce it using cassava starch as a base binder. Starch is also used in industries to produce ethanol and glucose for textile industries, laundry and paper adhesive industries.
It is of great importance to paper, wood and furniture industries and the need to produce a more stable adhesive locally to minimize cost remains the investigating factor for embarking on this research work.
The method of wood adhesive production used in this work was the questionnaire work was the geletinization method. In the production, the optimum geletinization temperature was found to be 800c while the optimum temperature of dextrin formation is 1400c. The production involves the souring of the starch from cassava, determination of the various additives employed in the production. The materials used in the production works were sourced in line with the objectives of the research. The following components were used: starch extracted from cassava which is responsible for the adhesion force that holds two bodies together, calcium carbonate (CaCo3) for viscosity improvement, formaddehyde as preservative, natrosol cellulose as a thicker and water as solvent.
Experimental analysis was based on all the factors that influence the stability of an adhesive example pH values, viscosity, tack time, boarding strength etc. the values obtained were compared with the standard brands and were found to compare favourably with other standard adhesives.
Formulation B showed the most desirable characteristics and hence is the optimum sample.
An adequate cost analysis was also carried out to determine the feasibility of the project on a commercial venture. Thus, a locally sourced product (wood adhesive) that can complete with similar product in terms of properties but at a much reduced cost was produced. The shelf life and teak time of the product were determined and found to be good. The wood adhesive was established to be water resistant.
1.5 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND (PREAMBLE)
Technology has played an important role in man’s development and thus, has helped to shape the world as it is seen today. This could be seen in all facets of industrial ventures, hence the introduction of new products into the market.
Man’s growing desire to hold two or more substance together by surface attachment so that they can be used a s a single piece coupled with the technological advancement has given birth to a broad range of adhesive production to serve this purpose.
The technique of adhesive bonding has come of age. It is not possible to say when the practice was first developed and used. From history, history made us to believe that the first adhesive even made or used by man was probably clay, animal glue and resinous exudates from trees, of which is known to go back a very long way over 3300 years ago.
The Egyptians used vegetable glue adhesives in wood works and in the production of Papyri. It was during the 19thcentury that there was technological advancement which led to the sourcing and production of varieties of adhesive. In 1912, F.G Parkins found out that starch could be converted by mild caustic soda solution into a liquid glue that was stable at room temperature.
Most of the popular adhesive currently in use in the country are imported as such the clamour for adhesive that are locally produced has been on primary concern for embarking on this project. It is the aim of this project to produce wood adhesive from local raw materials using maize or corn or cassava as the case study or reference study. Though starch can be extracted from plants for example corn, barley, wheat and potatoes and cassava but for simplicity sake have to be reduced to maize and cassava.