RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS EVALUATION TECHNIQUES AND INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES IN TEACHING CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS STUDIES IN JEMA’A LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Teachers are normally expected to teach, evaluate, revise and improve their teaching by employing various evaluation techniques such as test-essay and objectives, checklists and rating scale (Ughamadu 2006). The improvement of teaching entails analyzing the feedback from the evaluation data. Evaluation involves analysis of the entire educational situation – subject matter, method of assessment as well as the instructional objective.
Evaluation does not separate itself from teaching. It is an integral part of the lesson or teaching-learning process. No instructional process can be termed successful unless it has been evaluated. It is advisable that the teacher must establish the objectives of the lesson and then goes ahead to select the procedures or learning activities, and teaching materials to achieve the objectives. The teacher has to determine the techniques of evaluation that are most appropriate to lead to the attainment of the objectives that have been selected.
Evaluation is considered a stage in the curriculum planning and development process. It is not seen as the terminal phase since modern conception of curriculum development process is that it is a dynamic, cyclic and continuous one. Thus evaluation could bring about the need to have another look at curriculum objectives. This in turn will affect the content and learning experiences and even evaluation. Besides, evaluation is inbuilt in all the stages of the curriculum development process. When we are selecting goals, objectives and evaluation on the basis of some criteria, we are involved in some form of evaluation. Guga and Bawa (2012) defined Evaluation as the process of determining the extent to which instructional objectives have been achieved. This is basically what teachers do when they set tests or give assignments.
Basically, we have two types of evaluation; formative and summative evaluation. Formative evaluation is undertaken during the development stage of a curriculum when the curriculum is being developed and tried out before its final adoption. The feedback information that is obtained from formative evaluation, is used by curriculum developers as an input to improve or modify the curriculum further before its final adoption.
Summative evaluation is the type of evaluation undertaken when the programme under development has come to an end. It is the evaluation of the total programme after it has been fully developed, adopted and implemented so as to assess the overall effectiveness of the curriculum.