REPAIR OF STOP CLOCKS
Stop clocks are devices for indicating time duration for the occurrence of two events after a passage of time. They are usually powered by batteries and they measure time in unit of seconds. Most clocks stop working as a result of the inability of the main spring to make a complete revolution. Also problems that do arise in clocks and cause it to breakdown include worn gear teeth, pendulum friction, and sympathetic vibrations among others.
To effectively carry out repairs on stop clocks or other clocks, simple maintenance should be carried out. This includes clearing and oiling the parts of the clock mechanism. In the repair of the stop clocks the clearing and oiling procedure was carried out whereas in the others, simple forgoing of metal drips was done and fitted into the clock to ensure they start working.
The total cost of the material for repair of the stop clock is N2, 000 while the labour cost is N5, 000 to bring the cost of the project to a total N7, 000 certain guideline and recommendation were made to ensure a lasting usage of the stop clocks. References were made from various textbooks and information was sourced from the Internet to help in the repair of the clocks and researches in this project report.
The undersigned being members of the academic staff of the department of Chemical Engineering have on behalf of the department examined and assessed the result of this project.
Having read and understood, the content of this project report, we do hereby indicate by our signature individually and collectively that we recommend that the project and its report be declared.
Time is the dimension of the physical universe, which at a given place orders the sequences of events. It is above designated instance in this sequence, such as the time of the day. Time measurement consists in counting the repetitions of any occurring phenomenon, and if the interval between successive recurrence is sensible, in sub-dividing it. A time interval may be measured in two epochs or simply by counting from an arbitrary starting point as is done with a stopwatch.
HISTORY OF TIME KEEPING
The clock (device used in measuring time) is one of the most influential discoveries in the history of western science. The division of time into regular predictable units is fundamental to the operation of society. Chronology dates back to 8th century BC, Heisod’s writing confirmed that during this period, celestial bodies were used to indicate agricultural cycles.
Later, the Greeks such as Archimedes developed complicated models of the heavens celestial spheres that illustrated the wanderings of the sun, moon and the plants against the fixed position of the stars.
In the middle ages (roughly 500 CE to 1500 CE) technological advancement virtually ceased in Europe. Sundial styles evolved, but didn’t move far from ancient Egyptian principles. During these times, simple dials placed above doorways were used to identify midday and four tide of the sunlit day.
In the first half of the 14th century large mechanical clocks began to appear in the towers of several large Italian cities. These clocks were weight driven and regulated by a verge – and foliot escapement. In 1656, Christian Huygens, a Dutdi Scientist, made the first pendulum clock, regulated by a mechanism with a “natural” period of oscillation. In 1671, William Clement began building clocks with the new “anchor” or “recoil” escapement, a substantial improvement over the verge because of its pendulum. There were other improvements made by various scientists on the clock over the last 300 years before we had the modern day clocks.
This is basically a medianism in which a toothed wheel engages alternate pallets attached to an oscillating member. The escapement is found principally in time pieces but may also be employed where never oscillating motion is required.
The escapement of a clock is the part of the clock that ensures accurate time keeping. Many escapements have been designed among the most successful are: the verge escapement, anchor escapement, deadbeat escapement, Grasshopper escapement, Electro-mechanical escapement; often-required in different clocks.
Some forms of escapements include true escapement, Runaway escapement, turned escapement and so on.