TEACHER QUALITY AND WORK ENVIRONMENT AS DETERMINANTS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
1.1. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The importance of qualified teachers and school environment in secondary schools today in particular cannot be overemphasized. Reason being that school environment has a major effect in the quality of education students received. This implies that schools that fail to provide the necessary learning facilities and create a conducive atmosphere for teaching and learning coupled with qualified teachers may hardly put in the best in their students especially in the
area of academic performances. The quality of education not only depends on the teachers teaching performances, but also on how he/she can control the school environment effectively (Ajao, 2001). Many factors might contribute to students’ poor achievement in school which may include: poor study habits and lack of available resource materials, poor school climate, indiscipline, inadequate facilities, teachers’ ineffectiveness, the teaching method and the type of learning environment available for both the students and the teachers, Teacher’s ineffectiveness as a cause of student’s poor performances can narrowed down to their qualification in the subject(s) being taught. Learning can also be said to occur through one’s effective interaction with one’s environment. Environment here
refers to availability of facilities that are of good help to facilitate students learning and yield a positive outcome on their academic performances. This environment ranges from books, audio-visual, software and hardware of educational technology; so also, size of classroom, sitting position and arrangement, availability of tables, chairs, chalkboards, shelves on which instruments for practical are arranged (Farrant, 1991 and Farombi, 1998).
On the other hand, the extent at which some teachers, exhibit high level of indiscipline within the school environment does not seem to portray them as role models. Thus, they rather encourage indiscipline among students by their attitudes as this may have negative influence of students’ academic achievement. Teachers on the other-hand can make or mar the school curriculum; therefore, their adequacy and quality such as qualification, experience, attitude and
personality for better service delivery needs to be assessed by the school authority on a regular basis, so that students’ academic performance won’t be jeopardize with. The availability of qualified teachers is a major determinant in the performance of students in schools Akinsolu (2010). Coonen (1987) emphasizes that teachers who has undergone in-service training were more effective in classrooms as compared to teachers who had not undergone any form of training.
Many scholars and researchers generally are not in agreement that the school environments, which include teacher administration, play a critical role in positive academic performances than other variables (Patrick, 2005). The important role of the teachers in the learning is unquestionable. Teachers have
been said to have a lot of influence on their classroom practices. Teachers should have and apply specific teaching skills and abilities that can be reflected in their students’ performance in the subject they teach, in which the students will be able to make connection between what is taught in school and its application in problem solving in real life.
1.2. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The influence of teacher quality and school environment on positive academic achievement of students has been an issue of concern to all stakeholders and researchers in education. This is crystal clear in the rate of mass failure of students in both internal and external examinations which might be narrowed down to lack of basic infrastructural facilities like good buildings and classrooms and teacher qualification, experience and competence. However, several research studies have fail to identified other factors such as school climate, discipline and physical facilities, teacher quality, type of location of school and over population of students in classroom as being responsible for poor academic for poor academic achievement of students. However, the researcher is examining the effect of teacher’s quality and work environment on secondary school students’ academic performance.
1.3. OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The following are the objectives of this study
To examine the teacher’s quality as determinants of secondary school students academic performance
To determine the effect of work environment on secondary school students academic performance
To identify factors that affect secondary school students academic performance
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
What are the effects of work environment on secondary school students academic performance?
What is the correlation between the teacher’s quality and secondary school students academic performance?
What are the factors encouraging secondary school students academic performance?
HO: Teacher’s quality does not determine secondary school students’ academic performance
HA: Teacher’s quality determines secondary school students’ academic performance
HO: Work environment does not have any effect
on secondary school students academic performance
HA: Work environment does have effect on secondary school students’ academic performance
1.6. SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The outcome of this study will form a useful guide for school management/boards on type of school environment that can facilitate better learning among secondary school students. The result of this study will also go a long way to help in maintaining discipline among teachers because of the major role they play in student’s academic performance. The outcome of this research work will also go a long way in educating school management and board on the quality of teachers that are been employed. This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.
1.7. SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
This study on teacher’s quality and work environment as determinants of secondary school student’s academic performance will cover the assessment of a selected secondary school, its environment and the teachers.
1. Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Teacher: a person whose job is to pass information and orient students about certain subjects Student: a person formally engaged in learning, especially one enrolled in a school or college Environment: the setting or conditions in which a particular activity is carried on. Performance: the accomplishment of a given task measured against preset known standards of accuracy, completeness, cost and speed
Ajao, A. (2001). Teachers effectiveness on students’ academic performance. Journal of Education and Practice 5 (22).
Akinsolu, A. O (2005). Resource utilization and internal efficiency of public secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria. Unpublished PhD dissertation.Department of Educational Management, University of Ilorin.
Farombi, J.G. (1998). Resource concentration, utilization and management as correlates of students’ learning outcomes: a study in School Quality in Oyo State.Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, university of Ibadan. Farrant,J. S. (1991). Principles and practice of education (Tenth Impression Singapore: Longman. Patrick, B. (2005). Why children must not be Compared In Education Sight for Quality Information Magazine, Kenya