TRADITIONAL HAUSA CLOTHS: A COMPARATIVE COLLECTION OF SOKOTO AND KEBBI STATE
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Nigeria, among other African countries is known for her different varieties of traditional cloths ranging from one ethnic group to the other. The evidence can be seen from all the thirty six states in Nigeria; the clothing style of the eastern Nigeria differ from that of the northern Nigeria as so on. Clothing is anything placed on the body to adorn or to motivate behaviour (John and Foster, 1990). It includes all the different garments, accessories or ornaments worn by people as well as their make-up and styles. Theories have attempted to explain the motivation factors underlying clothing choices and decision. Such theories include: modesty, immodesty, protection and adornment theories (Marshal Jackson, Stanley, Kefgen and Touchie 2000). Modesty theory focuses on standard regarding the area of the anatomy to be concealed and state that clothes are worn solely to conceal or cover nakedness (Marshal et al. 2000). Various cultures have rules about modesty that relate to their use of clothing. The immodesty theory on the other hand states that clothing is not to cover nakedness but to attract attention. The argument here is that wearing of garment is far erotic than in going without them (Marshal et al. 2000). The protection theory view physical protection and psychological protection as major reasons of purpose of wearing clothes. Dress or clothing is a kind of garment worn by people of all cultures since pre-historic times. Different peoples of the world have their unique dress culture. The materials used for making dresses range from cotton, wool, silk fabric to flax fabric and rubber. Dresses that people in all cultures wear are determined by a number of factors. The main factor that has determined, and is still determining, the variety of clothes in different times and locations, is climate (Braun, 2005). In Nigeria for instance, we have the rainy season and the dry season, with their characteristic cold and hot temperature. Dress culture therefore has to bow to the prevailing weather condition. Dress culture has also been affected by changing styles or fashion in vogue. Other factors that influence the dress that people wear are the availability of materials, cost of materials, technology of the period, peoples’ social status, human migration, religious tradition, assimilation of various traditions, social cosmopolitan outlook or modernity, travels and perhaps colonization, conversion and nationalism.
The study will consider the Northern Nigeria especially the Hausa clothing style taking into consideration Sokoto and Kebbi state.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
The problem associated with the difference in style and fashion of clothing style in Nigeria is due to the style of weaving. The styles and patterns of dressing are largely determined by variables like group dynamics cum peer group relationship, weather, event, ethical dressing code (such as law and medical student) etc. Despite these and other variable certain types of dressing by the ladies in particular tend to have disastrous eect
on their male counterparts, lecturers, and the society hence negative motives may be developed generally through cursory looking. Beside, most of the attitude and behaviour towards dressing, at times by the female students do not conform to moral standard thereby, debasing the human value, norm and
standard. As a result, the cherished cultural norms and values are highly abused and relegated to the background, according to Best (2002), this negative trend in dressing is an indication of poor parental upbringing, low level of cultural and religious values and practices. The cultural practice in Nigeria is the
major cause of the variation in clothing style. Take the Northern Nigeria for instance, the Hausas in Kebbi weaves their cloth in different manner compared to that of Sokoto and vice visa.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main aim of the research work is to examine the carryout a comparative collection of Hausa cloths of Sokoto State and Kebbi State. Other specific objectives of the study are stated below as follows:
1. To examine the effect of cultural differences on the clothing style of Sokoto and Kebbi state
2. To examine the weaving style/pattern on the nature of traditional cloths
3. To investigate on the factors acting the quality of production
4. To examine the effect of individual style on preference of Sokoto or Kebbi State cloth collection
5. To profer solution to the above problem