THE IMPACTS OF EFFECTIVE REVENUE GENERATION AND GRASSROOTS GOVERNANCE IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF ITU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA AKWA IBOM STATE
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Objectives of the study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Research Hypothesis
1.6 Significance of the study
1.7 Scope and limitation of the study
1.8 Definition of terms
CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.2 Definition of Local government
2.3 Problems of Local government
2.4 Importance of local government
2.5 Revenue generation in local government
2.6 Utilization of local government revenue
2.7 History of local government in Nigeria
2.8 Local government reforms
2.9 Theoretical framework
CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.2 Area of study
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sample size determination
3.5 Sample size and technique
3.6 Method of data collection
3.7 Sample Procedure
3.8 Method of data collection
CHAPTER FOUR – DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.2 Data presentation
4.3 Research Hypothesis
- 4 Test of Hypothesis
CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
- 0 Introduction
5.1 Summary of findings
- Background of the Study
One of the recurrent problems of the three tiers system in Nigeria is dwindling revenue generation a characterized by annual budget deficits and insufficient funds for meaningful growth and visible projects governance. Local government areas the nearest government to the people at the grassroots in Nigeria, they are strategically located to play a pivotal role in national governance. Since they are responsible for the government of about 10 percent of the population of the majority of Nigerians and formulate strategies for their realization (Bello-Iman 1990).
Local government in Nigeria receives statutory allocations from the two higher tiers of government federal and state. At the present revenue sharing formula, local government receives 20 percent from the federal account. They are also statutorily entitled ten percent of state’s internal revenue. As regards to value added tax, local government receives 30 percent in 1998. This was shared to local government on the following basis equality (50 percent), Adisokonu Nwankwo, 2004.
The federal government controls all the major sources of revenue like import and export duties, mining recent and royalties, petroleum sales tax, petroleum profit tax and companies icon tax among other revenue, local government taxes are minimal hence limits their ability to raise independent revenue.
So they depend solely on allocation from federal account. Much of the revenue collected by the federal government and distributed among the different tiers of government using the vertical revenue allocation formula is from the federal government. But the federal government seems to exercise too much control that incapacitate local government from performing their best to do project (Emenuga, 1993 and Ekpo, 1994).
Local government has the responsibility for economic planning and governance, citizenship governance and empowerment through primary vocational education and capacity enhancement through health care provision cannot be effectively executed. In a study carried out by United Nations Governance Programme (UNDP) and the state/Local government department of the presidency, out of an aggregate of 23, 6027 claimed by the respondent. Local government, only 5,291 are linked to National grid for electricity supply while 33 percent do not have electricity at all even in their headquarters (UNDP, 1989) yet between 1995 and 1997 the local government executed only 122 rural electrification projects nation wide. Sixty percent of the local government inhabitants have no access to telecommunication facilities yet as local government are still confined to their traditional with just a little improvement.
- Statement of the Problems
Recently, citizens are interested on the governance of their local government which yearn towards improved standard of living. Local government actualize the governance goals through revenue mobilization. The more the revenue, the more the governance, but local government administration is faced with challenges which causes governance backwardness in Nigeria and in Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State and such problems are as follows: (Ejike, 1993).
Over control of public revenue by federal government and state government, there is no lucrative fund left to local authorities which weakens administrative machinery, lack of mission, lack of comprehensive functional role, lack of proper structures. The role of local government in governance process are not known, low quality staff which include dishonest staff and untrained personnel who are suppose to save as tools for governance at the local government level, even the few available ones are not properly trained in efficient budgetary and financial management systems. The delay in the passage of annual budget in addition to insincerity among the council staff on field assignment poses greater problems because most of them usually divert collected fund for their personal usage, thereby denying the council of the needed funds for it operation.
It is on this not that this study sought to investigate whether generated and statutory revenues have been properly utilized for moral governance or not, with a view to proffer possible suggestions.
- Objectives of the Study
This research study is aimed at examining on the impacts in which effective revenue generation and grassroots governance is actualized in our society.
- To examine the impacts of effective revenue generation in the governance of Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
- This study is aimed at ascertaining the sources of revenue in Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
- To find out whether corruption has hinders the governance of Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
- To identify factors to be considered in the allocation of revenue by both federal, State and Local Government.
1.4 Research Questions
- To what extent does the impact of effective revenue generation be applied in the governance of Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
- What are the successes of revenue in Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
- Does corruption hinders the governance of Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
- How can internally generated revenue be utilized for the governance of Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
- Research Hypotheses
Based on the explanation contained in the background of this study, we propose the following hypotheses:
- Effective Revenue generation and grassroots governance encourages development at the grass root level.
- It also provide for job opportunities for the citizens at the local government area. This helps in reducing the quest to migrate to urban centres in search of better loving among the people at the local government level.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The importance of the study is very necessary for government in all tiers that comprises both federal, state and local government. Also to students and researchers
- This research will serve as a study material to both students and fellow researchers in higher institutions.
- It will enlighten on various government programmes, and funds that are provided by local government that students can benefit from.
- It will assist in improving standard of living of indigenes that lead to increase in income of our parents that will enable proper funding of our education.
- Private organizations and individuals will see the need to support government programs and policies and comply accordingly.
- It will help me as a public administrator to utilize the opportunity created by the local government effectively.
- It will strengthen the administrative arm of government and suggest meaningful ways of overcoming local government challenges.