IMPROVING VOCATIONAL SKILLS ACQUISITION FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN MECHANICAL TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN UNIVERSITIES IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU STATE)
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Entrepreneurship is the process of creating something new of value by devoting the necessary time and eort, assuming the accompanying financial psychic, personal satisfaction and independence (Hisrich and Peter, 2002). Adegun and Akomolafe (2013) explained the concept of entrepreneurship development as a gradual growth of creative and economic and social venture. It involves establishing an individual to explore, opportunities successfully through making a
profitable or suering loss of invested capital. The fundamental “principle” of entrepreneurship as a field of study is that it deals with the organization of knowledge in a particular subject in such a way that it commands more of the hidden potential in the subject in the area of self-employment and job creation.
It has to do with system of ideas and values that are now given attention recently as part of the tertiary institution curriculum (Mkpa, 2014). The function of entrepreneurial development at the school or faculty level in conventional institutions is to enable its students to discover, whilst undertaking their regular course of studies, what other relevant work experiences other than those in paid employment of government and other agencies are going on in society bythe appropriate entrepreneurs so as to facilitate the direct exchange of information in the interest of students.
Entrepreneurship is the process that begins when anyone at all perceives an opportunity and takes decision to exploit it. Exploitation of such entrepreneurial opportunities can naturally involve developing a business plan, securing financial and other necessary resources including applying personal eorts for its success. entrepreneurial entrepreneurial which may operate as in this case study, within a sustainable development is a concept coined in the Brundtland Report (World Commission on Environment and Development Report, 1987) to describe development that “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.’’ Zhang, J. (2012). In Nigeria there is striking needs and incredible benefits for the nation to channel all
possible energy into sustainable developments seen our rural sector, oil and non-oil economy. Nigeria still needs a strong sustainability development reform as a sound economic growth will lead to environmental improvement. Skill acquisition can simply be said to be the process of releasing human energy, it means providing an opportunity for people to make the maximum contribution to their own development and to the self development of their communities. Asante (1991) asserted that skill acquisition will help to reduce the poverty rate if people are trained in diverse areas and they in turn create wealth for themselves and their immediate environment. Everybody cannot get
government job or white collar job and hence the need for skill acquisition that will shape and improve the lives of the people who have resigned to fate for lack of job. Electrical, Mechanical, Technical as well as fashion design can be acquired. These skill if well acquire can make the individual to be self-reliant and thus the issue of a burden to others will not be there. Noe et al (2003) suggest that enabling the individual to acquire skill can make him bring about good
innovation, good performance, self respect and improvement in their quality of lives.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
To analyze the issues and challenges related to university undergraduates’ vocational skills acquisition for entrepreneurship development and Self employability, hence the need for this research. Nigerian tertiary institutions produce millions of graduates annually into a labour market which is already overpopulated, thereby raising the level of unemployment. It is as a result of this that the government in conjunction with its agencies tends to introduce vocational skills acquisition programmes in tertiary institutions in order to correct this anomaly and also ensure that these newly graduated students become self-reliant and prepare for them a future which will in turn devoid the economy of miscreants. Experience over the years has revealed that more than sixty percent of these graduates end up roaming about the streets as a result of lack of job opportunities (Okanu 2015). The unemployment rate in Nigeria keeps escalating as each year comes by as a result of continuous injection of lack of quality graduates. This situation has become so pathetic because
job seekers/applicants end up going back to their aged parents who have invested so much in them, with the hope that someday, they will get back the dividends of their investments but all to no avail. This menace(unemployment) which has eaten deep into the fabric of the society must be reversed to avoid national crisis. Entrepreneurship development is just evolving in our tertiary institutions as the programme was introduced in 2006 effective from 2007/2008 academic sessions and this has made the acquisition of relevant vocational skills for employment and self employability more theoretical than practical. This calls for critical survey of vocational entrepreneurship education as the key to solving graduate unemployment (Oyebola, 2010).
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to examine the improvement of vocational skills acquisition for entrepreneurship development in Nigerian universities. Other general objectives of the study include;
1. To examine the level of vocational skills acquisition among Nigerian undergraduates.
2. To examine the need for entrepreneurial development in our tertiary institutions.
3. To determine the importance of vocational skills acquisition to employment generation.
4. To assess the relationship between vocational skill acquisition and entrepreneurial development in Nigeria.
5. To recommend ways of improving vocational skills acquisition in Nigerian tertiary institutions.
1. What is the level of vocational skills acquisition among Nigerian undergraduates?
2. What is the need for entrepreneurial development in our tertiary institutions?
3. What is the importance of vocational skills acquisition to employment generation?
4. What is the relationship between vocational skill acquisition and entrepreneurial development in Nigeria?
5. What are the ways of improving vocational skills acquisition in Nigerian tertiary institutions?
H0: There is no significant relationship between vocational skills acquisition and entrepreneurial development in Nigeria
H1: There is a significant relationship between vocational skills acquisition and entrepreneurial development in Nigeria
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study would be of immense benefit towards the development of entrepreneurship in Nigerian tertiary institutions by highlighting ways of improving vocational skills acquisition which would improve self reliance thereby improving the quality of graduates while the same time reducing the level of unemployment in Nigeria.
SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study is restricted to vocational skills acquisition for entrepreneurship development in mechanical technical education in universities in Enugu state.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for
the research work.