The bacterial contaminants associated with commercial poultry feeds from three companies in Nigeria (vital, Guinea and Top) were studied using streak plate techniques. The culture media used were Nutrient agar and Mac Cokey agar. The aim/ objective of the study is: To ascertain the microbial safety of commercial poultry feeds produced by companies. To isolate microorgaisms that are contaminants of poultry feeds, to identify the bacterial types and to determine the microbial load of poultry feed. The microbial mean count was highest in vital feed as 166 per ml with pH 7.80, followed by Guinea feed having mean count of 153 per ml with pH 6-46 and the least microbial mean count was got in Top feed, having 105 per ml withpH 6.00. The study revealed Staphylococcus aureus as the most predominant bacterial organism with 52cfn (33%) followed by salmonella typhin with 48cfu (30%), The next bacterial organism isolated was Bacillus cereus with 40cfn (25%) and the least was Pseudomonas aeruginosa with 18cfu (12%). Also vital feed had the highest isolation of stapohylococcus aureus, as 60cfu per ml followed by Guinea feed having 57 cfu per ml and least isolation was obtained from top feed as 40cfu per ml. While the highest isolation of salmonella tipphi was obtained also from vital feed as 57cfu per ml, followed by Guinea feed with 50cfu per ml. The highest6 isolation of Bacillus cereus was still from vital feed as 50 cfu per ml, followed by Guinea feed as 43cfu per ml and least in Top feed with 28cfu per ml. The highest isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was from vital feed with 25cfu per ml, followed by Guinea feed with 19cfu per ml while least isolation was from top feed as 10 cfu per ml. The results showed that the poultry feeds in general had bacterial contaminants. But the microbial load was minimal increasing with decrease in acidity (i.e. high pH).
Poultry are collection of birds raised commercially or domestically for meat, egg and feathers. Chickens, ducks turkeys and geese are of primary importance while guinea fowl and squabs (pigeons) are chiefly of local interest. These birds are source of income and food to the rarer. In the past only hens that could no longer produce eggs were killed and sold for meat but by the mid-20th century, meat production had outstripped egg. Production as a specialized industry (Encycloparredia Britaimca, 1988). Heavy breed poultry animals are used for meat white light bread chickens are primarily for the production of eggs (Mc Graw Hill encydopaedia 1992). The meat and eggs produced from poultry are important sources of dietary portion. In Africa, animal protein foods from all sources contribute between 7g and 15g daily per person to the total food intake (Oyenyga, 1974). Today, Poultry production in the country is increasing at a tremendous rate and yet cannot meet the demand because of population growth and the awareness created by the campaigns for the need of animal protein in the diet.
The growth and well-being of organisms are to a large extent dependent on the mount and type of food they receive and the manner or rate at which they receive it. The food should contain nutrients such as water, carbohydrates, fats, protein, minerals, vitamins and added growth factors improper balance. Each of these nutrients has a major role to play concerning growth, maintenance and productivity of the poultry. According to Leonard 91981), nutritional deficiency or inbalance. These diseases may include rickets, perosis, and nutritional roup, curly the paralysis etc. These diseases could result due to deficiency in vitamins D, Manganese, vitamin A, vitamin E and riboflavin. Improper sanitation and inadequate management play major roles in disease. Outbreak and productivity of the desired products. In developing countries like Nigeria, the cost of feeding, especially the monogastries continues to escalate primarily in response the soaring cost of the conventional feed ingredients. This phenomenon is precipitated by under production and importation of some food stuff coupled with the competition between man and farm animal for energy and protein concentrates.