THE EFFECT OF CALCIUM TAINTED WATER ON CADMIUM INDUCED LIVER DAMAGE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY
Cadmium is recognize has a toxicant to both human and it’s environment and recent investigations have shown its level of toxicity in association in liver damage. The aim of study is to determine the effect of calcium tainted water on cadmium induced liver damage have been examine in this studies, 20 female wistar rat were used in this study the rats divided into four groups each containing 5 rats per group . The group one was maintained on normal feed and water only, the group 2 were exposed to cadmium only while the group three were exposed to calcium only and the group four were exposed simultaneously to cadmium and calcium. Each of the animal was given treatment based on their body weight (0.9 mg per kg body weight). The treatments were administered to the animals once a day for two weeks. At the end of two weeks the animals were sacrificed and the following biochemical markers were measured; Alkaline phosphatase, total protein, alanine amino transferase, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin. All the biochemical markers were negatively affected by cadmium with exception to Albumin and total protein. The study reveal that cadmium has the potential to induce hepatotoxicity and calcium tainted water offer little ameliorating affect to cadmium induce liver damage.
1.0 INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW
Heavy metals are toxic agent. They are toxic to humans and animals. Heavy metals which establishes toxic actions to humans include; cadmium (Stohs and Bagchi,1995), lead ( Ferner, 2001) and mercury (Hawkes, 1997). Each of these has been studied in isolation for toxicity (Huton and Symon, 1986; Nriagu and Pacyna, 1988; Nriagu, 1989). But, in the eco-system, be it air, atmosphere, land, and water where they occur, they do not exist in isolation. They occur in close association with other metal and non-metallic elemental pollutants. Among the metallic pollutant could be calcium, copper, zinc, magnesium, manganese, iron and others. Metals are known to interact with one another. The interaction can bring two elements together in close proximity or it could cause out right displacement of one another. When ingested together in food and water, they antagonize each other. When it comes to intestinal and pulmonary absorption, it is therefore conceivable that the presence of other elements can the toxic potential of each of the heavy metals that have been studied in isolation.
Eborge (1994) reported that warri river has an unacceptable high cadmium level, 0.3 mg cadmium per liter of water which was 60 folds above the maximum allowable level of 0.005 mg per liter. This report prompted our earlier studies on the hepato, nephro and gonadial toxicity of cadmium. In rats exposed to this high dose via water and diet, the diet was formulated with feed exposed to 0.3 mg cadmium per water. In the ambient water as protein source and the toxic effect investigated and reported (Asagba and obi 2000; Asagba and Obi 2001; Obi and Ilori 2002; Asagba and Obi 2004a; Asagba and Obi 2004b; Asagba and Obi 2005).