CONTRACEPTIVES AND THEIR EFFECTS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY
The term contraception refers to any procedure or device intended to prevent pregnancy (the presence of an implanted conceptus in the uterus). (Kenneth, 1998).
Contraception allows couples to choose when and if to have a baby. Some forms of contraception also provide protection against sexually transmitted infection (STIs). There are several types of contraception, which works in different ways. Barrier methods such as male and female condoms, create a physical barrier against sperm. Women can also use hormonal methods of contraception, such as the pills, or mechanical contraceptive devices, such as an IUD (Intrauterine Device) that is placed in the womb. (Robort Finn, 2007).
No contraceptive is 100% reliable, and some have possible side effects. It is therefore important to consider Age, medical history, and sexual life styles when deciding what sort of protection to use. It’s worth remembering that the male condom is the only form of contraception that also protects sexually transmitter diseases. In all cases, contraceptives methods are more reliable if used properly. (Robort Finn, 2007).
1.1 HISTORY OF CONTRACEPTIVE USAGE
Through the centuries, women and men have been searching for the ultimate contraceptive. Many different methods have been tried and many have failed. Some have been painful, some comfortable, others ineffective and others effective.
Different methods have been passed own from generations.
The first methods is the natural method. In the past, women used to nurse their children for two or three years. This would suppress ovulation, thus preventing form pregnancy. (Jake, 2004).
Another effective natural methods is coitus interruptus or withdrawing before ejaculation. The process involves the male withdrawing the penis from the female before ejaculation occurs. (Jake, 2004).
The rhythm method is basically abstaining from intercourse during ovulation. Many oral contraceptives in the past were drinks containing oil, fruits, grains and other vegetable matter. Douches also were used as birth control. French prostitutes has been using syringes to douches since 1600. This was seldom on effective method of contraceptive unless the douche was acidic. Oriental women used oiled paper “capping the cervix” was effective while European women used beeswax. (Jake, 2004).
Historians attribute the intrauterine devices (UUDs0 to the Arabs. They would stick pebbles into the uteruses of their camels to prevent pregnancy on long trips across the desert. (Jake, 2004).
The females were not the only ones with a form of contraceptives. The males used a condom, a small covering used to cover the penis. In folk core, “Dr Condom” invented a condom for king Charles II in the 17th century. A man named Charles Goodyear developed the first rubber condom in the 19th century. In he 1990’s a condom for women was invented, which instead of fitting a penis fits inside the female virgina. (Jake, 2004).
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