Background of the Study
One striking characteristic of human beings is the ability to use language in the most dynamic form – speech. This characteristic is unique in the sense that it distinguishes human beings from other animals. In the light of this, every human society possesses a language which is physiologically expressed in the vocal system and used in exchange of views about the universe. Bello (2005) opined that man is able to communicate and interact with one another through the medium of language and that the ability to speak and be understood by others would not have been possible without the use of language.
English is a language and is one of the most prominent languages in Nigeria. According to Bello (2005) English language is the country’s lingua franca. However, the presence of English language in Nigeria and indeed in most African countries today has a colonial history. English language found its way into Nigeria through the activities of early British merchants, missionaries and colonial masters. Otagburuagu and Anyanwu (2002) stated that the advent of English language into Nigeria dated back to the early days of European trading expeditions, British colonization efforts and the introduction of christian missionaries and that the language became officially well established after the Berlin Conference in 1885, when European leaders met and partitioned Africa.
Following that partitioning in 1885, Nigeria became a colony of the British Empire. Subsequently, the British colonial masters bequeathed to Nigeria their language which was English language. Hence, English which was the language of Britain came to be used in Nigeria for administrative and educational purposes. Even after the attainment of independence from the British, English language had to be retained as a colonial legacy. This situation was easily favoured by the linguistic complexity of Nigerian society.
However, English language does not play a marginal role in Nigeria. It has become a crucial element in the life of Nigerians today particularlly in the field of education. In this regard, Marjah and Offorma (2010) opined that English Language is a major vehicle for education in Nigeria. It is the medium of instruction in schools, the official and national language and the most frequently used language in the judiciary, media and commerce. It is the language used for interaction with the international communities. In Nigeria, before the adoption of English language as the nation’s second as well as official language, many indigenous languages like Hausa, Yoruba and Igbo had been in use for communication and other purposes but none of these indigenous languages was spoken by the majority of the people (Egbe, 2014). Hence, Marjah &Offorma (2010) state that to fully participate in the educational, socio-economic and political aspects of the Nigerian society, one needs to attain some acceptable level of proficiency in the language.
Because of the importance of English language, it has been made a compulsory subject from the upper- primary school to tertiary level of education as stated in the National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004). It is one of the major subjects that one must pass at credit level before one can gain admission into higher institutions. In addition, Marjah and Offorma (2010) stated that English language had been made a requirement for all persons who aspire for elective posts in the legislative houses at all tiers of government. It has become expedient for anybody that wants to be relevant in the country’s socio-economic and political environments to have an appreciable knowledge of English Language. This further underscores the need for the learning of English language as a second languge.
English language however, has four basic skills. These are: listening, speaking, reading and writing skills. Opega (2008) defined these skills as what a learner should be able to hear, say, read and write in the target language as a result of learning experience. Hence, the third language skill (reading) is what this study is concerned with. According to Opega (2008) reading is the third skill in language learning and yet, it appears as an indispensable tool of learning at various levels of education. Further still, Opega (2011) stated that reading is the fundamental skill upon which all formal education depends and it is an interactive activity between the writer and the reader. The writer encodes the message in the text, while the reader decodes the message in the same text in form of reading achievement.
Similarly, Nduka (2003) argued that reading is not just decoding or recognizing the printed words, but it involves the ability to comprehend, assimilate, react, summarize and utilize information when necessary. Feast (2002) observed that how well students progress in their academic pursuit is hinged to a large extent on their level of reading proficiency in English language. Feast further agreed that if students are defficient in the reading aspect of English language, such students may not perform well in the various school subjects because, different subjects requires much reading activities for success to be enhanced. This explains why reading in English language is viewed as an important and an indispensable skill among other language skills (Opega, 2011).
There are different approaches of reading English language at all levels of education. According to Day and Bamford (1998) there are different types of reading approaches a reader could follow to achieve overall reading comprehension. These include: individual reading approah, co-operative reading approach, collaborative reading approach, intensive reading approach, extensive reading approach, and multiple reading approach among others.
Individual reading approach is usually called silent or private reading. This type of reading approach is done by the individual student during school hours or after the school hours in a quiet place (Day & Bamford, 1998). Individual reading approach encourages the student to learn to read without the assistance of the teacher or the mates. This approach improves reading comprehension, speed reading and reading rate.
On the other hand, cooperative reading approach is another reading approach where students form small reading groups for the purpose of reading and exchange of academic ideas. This approach is also called group reading because it involves two or more persons and mostly student-centred in nature (Eskey, 1988). This approach encourages students interactions, discussions, dailoguing before they come to agreement on the same solution to the academic problem.
Furthermore, collaborative reading approach is a reading approach that involves the students at their various reading groups coming together to form a bigger reading group to achieve a common academic goal (Galvin, 1996). Besides, intensive reading is another reading approach that involves careful reading of text materials with the goal of complete and detailed understanding of text materials. Readers choose to read intensively in order to practise reading skills regularly. Intensive reading is a reading approach that enhances the reader distinguishing the main idea of a text from the details (Al-Homoud & Schmitt, 2009).
Extensive reading approach is also another reading approach that encourages large amount of reading materials, prited or written. Extensive reading approach is mostly used by students or an individual student that wishes to sustain silent reading to get global understanding of a particular reading text material. This approach does not need any guide from any teacher but personal reading effort is needed in such premise.
Multiple reading approach is another reading approach that is all encompassing. It is an adaptation of all the afore-mentioned reading approaches such as: cooperative, collaborative, individual and intensive reading approaches. It builds a global reading competence and encourages student to see their teachers as a source of knowledge from which the students draw inspiration (Eskey, 1988).
Nevertheless, Agada (2008) added that there are different teaching methods used in the teaching of reading in English language in the secondary schools. Several teaching methods have being evolved with the aim of improving students achievement and interest in reading in English language. One of these methods is the Audio-Lingual Method (ALM). The audio lingual method is one of the conventional teaching methods used in teaching foreign languages. Audio-lingual teaching method is based on behaviourist theory of learning which professes that certain traits of living things, and in this case human beings, could be trained through a system of reinforcement. Correct use of a trait would recieve positive feedback while incorrect use of that trait would recieve negative reinforcement (purnishment) (Richards, 1986).
In using audio lingual teaching method teacher drill students in the use of grammar applied to language instruction and often within the context of the language laboratory. This means that the instructor will present the correct model of the sentence and the student will have to repeat it. The teacher presents new words for the students to sample in the same structure of words. In audiolinguilism there is no individual self effort reading, the learning pattern is based on repetition and simple memorization. The idea is for the students to practice the particular construct until they can use it spontaneously. In this manner, the lessons are built on static drills in which the students have little or no control on their own output.
The audio lingual method seeks to establish the primacy of speech in language learning and advocates an inductive approach to language learning. It also adopts an intensive pattern practice and emphasizes the skill of listening and speaking at the expense of reading and writing activities. It employs the technique of drilling learners in correct pronunciation, intonation and word structures in real life situations. Audio lingual method does not inculcate in the learners an in depth knowledge of the target language (Agada, 2008).
In using the method (audio-lingual method) learners are faced with the challenge of self effort learning. Learners fail to develop their reading skills and comprehension abilities on their own. Learners cannot read to achieve contextual understanding of the text because the method lays no emphasis on self reading which according to Opega (2011) appears to be the most indispensable aspect of language skills. With the use of audio-lingual method of teaching, the teacher does the following; sets out the purposes for reading; build background experience of the passage reading, explains the unfamiliar words through the use of the dictionary, read topic sentences through the reading of comprehension tips and finally asks the students to listen while the teacher reads and answers comprehension questions. All these teaching guide do not encourage students to initiate self reading as doing so may lead to mistakes (Agada, 2008).
The weeknesses of the teaching method urshered in another teaching method which is Grammar Translation Method (GMT). This is a method that emphasizes the learning of rules and relies on the teaching of translation of texts with the use of a dictionary (Anasiudu, 2002). This method is solely concerned with the written aspect of language skill and the translation of mother tongue to English language visa-viz. The method also regards literature as the only authoritative guide to the desired standard of speech. The method was criticized because it over emphasized accurately the rules of grammar and memorization of words not reading comprehension which is the essence of reading. The criticism of the method ushered in another language teaching method called the Direct Method.
The Direct Method (DM) according to Agada (2008) emphasizes the spoken language. It dwell much on the learning of correct pronunciation of words in English Language. It employs a lot of drills and repetitions. It disallows the use of mother tongue in order not to give room for language interference. It is based on the science of phonetics and on the view that language is sounds; it does give room for silent reading. The method has a number of weaknesses: it proponents want the learner to learn the target language as they required the source languages. The method makes use of mechanical repetitive drills which could be engaged in without the thought on the part of learners. In using the method, abstract concepts are difficult to learn and translate.
Another language teaching method used in teaching English language is the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT). The method allows students to interact with one another in the language class. The method permits verbal interaction, simulating reality through role playing group activity, getting information that requires active involvement of students and the teacher, where the teacher becomes source or facilitator of learning. The method encourages the use of non-verbal stimuli including visuals, gesture and mime (William, 1999). Like other language teaching method, CLT has its own weaknesses. According to Uda (2010), Communicative Language Teaching is a method that is demanding on the teacher for its preparation and execution of the lesson plan. For instance, if the lesson plan is on supermarket, the teacher has to provide the supermarket provision in the shooping corner of the class that will make the execution of the lesson real. The method is largely seen as an oral approach and it tends to marginalize reading skills. The method also emphastzes communication neglecting reading wheres Brumfit (1997) advocated that lesson plan and execution should incorporate all the component of the language skills.
However, the objectives of these methods of teaching and learning especially in the aspect of reading achievement in English language at the secondary school seems not to be achieved. Secondary school students are hardly found initiating self reading. In support of the researcher observation, Azikwe (1998) stated that secondary school students demonstrate narrow range of reading ability in English language especially in their externer examinations. The problem of students inability to read well enough is mostly noticable among the Junior Secondary Students in Kabba/Bunu Local Government Area in Kogi State. In this local government, students engage more in street trading, playing games and chatting with friends through face book and other network services.
Many students prefered viewing movies at home. Students devote less attention and time to their reading activities. It is asumed that low achievement of students at the Junior School Basic Education Certificate Examinations (BECE) which have become a recurring decimal is caused by these problems observed by the researcher. To support this claim is the results gathered from the State Ministry of Education (KGMOE, 2015). The results show that for the past five years precisely 2010 till date candidate’s average scores have been under 50% (percent). For example, the statistical reports on candidate achievement in English Language Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) in June/July (2010) 25.99% obtained credit and above. In June/July (2011), 30.32% candidates scored credit and above. In June/July (2012) 35% candidates scored credit and above and in (2013), June/July, 32.48% obtained credit and above. In June/July (2014) 36.18% scored credit and above (KGMOE 2015). Consequently, Marjah and Offorma (2010) listed some factors responsible for candidate’s low achievement in English language. These include; inappropriate reading approach, students in ability to read understandably, liftting seeming answers without fitting them first in the sentences to see how appropriate and suitable they are before closing sentences. In the same vein, Komonnat (2010) added that contexual misunderstanding of vocabularies, misinterpretation of questions, and wrong spellings among others contributed to students low achievement in both internal and externer examinations.
These observations were in line with Bamgbose (2003) who stated that several mistakes that students made in English language examinations arise because of students’ inability to read comprehensively coupled with their lack of interest for reading activities. This is supported in the report gotten from All Nigeria Conference of Principals of Secondary Schools (ANCOPSS) Kogi State Chapter held in Lokoja in 2015. In the conference, it was reported that students have thrown away their reading culture and that students no longer see reading activity as a primary step to success. It was reported that students are more interested on immaterial things than their academic career, students do not give much attention and interest to reading activities after school hours. Opega (2011) concluded that students thought the little they were able to achieve in the classroom from the teacher were enough for them to achieve needed success. Finally, the External Examiners’ Report (2013) on Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) attributed students low achievement in English language to students in ability to read well, inappropriate reading approach, unpreparedness for examinations and inadequate method of teaching reading in English language. The external examiner therefore, called for a change in the method of teaching English language and reading approaches among students in the secondary schools.
However, the paramount teaching method used in the teaching and learning reading in English language in the Junior Secondary Schools is the Audio Lingual Method (ALM) which according to Agada (2008) is a method of teaching that establishes the primacy of speech at the expense of reading activities. Audio-lingual method does not encourage self reading effort, the bulk of classroom reading activity is done by the teacher while the students are reduced to mere spectators. Hence, audio-lingual method of teaching is being contrasted with extensive reading approach in this study. Extensive reading is a reading approach that was originally coined by Harold in 1964 to distinguish “Intensive Reading” (IR), the careful reading of complex text materials from “Extensive Reading” (ER), the reading of simple and wide variety of text materials for detailed understanding (Al-homoud & Schmitt 2009). Extensive reading approach is also referred to as free reading or book flood reading approach. According to Day and Bamford (2002b) extensive reading approach can be used to teach reading exercises at all levels of education with graded text materials. Extensive reading is an aid to language learning by means of reading a large amount of books, where reader is expected to come in contact with different vocabularies and developing the ability to interpret these vocabularies contextually (Richards and Rodgers, 1986).
Extensive reading has being used and advocated in language learning since 19th century to serve as a reading supplementary approach that could improve the reading interest and achievement of the learners. Extensive reading approach according to Day & Bamford (1998) may be chosen by students for the development of reading interest, reading exposure and reading understanding achievement. There are principles that guides the use of extensive reading approach. Day & Bamford, (2002a) listed ten prtnciples of extensive reading approach which include: students read as much as possible. Reading materials are well within the readers’ grammatical and vocabulary competence. Reader choses where to read. When to start and when to stop reading is at the discretion of the reader. Readers are at liberty to choose what they want to read at any time. Reading is often. Daily reading record is kept by each student. Teacher accesses record of books read, marked and returned back to the students. Extensive reading approach de-emphasizes teacher centeredness in the teaching and learning reading to student centered which promotes individual students reading activity and achievement (Yamazaki, 1996).
The learning theory underlying the use of extensive reading approach is the Humanistic Theory. This theory emphasizes self actualization and autonomous of students in learning and freedom of reading (Huitt, 2001). Humanistic theory is a theory that recognizes the learner as a whole person who has analytic ability to read understandably where the role of educator (teacher) is to facilitate teaching (Fredrick, 2006). While the learning theory underlying the use of Audio-lingual method of teaching is the Behavioural theory of stimulus-response which upholds that language, like much of human behaviour takes the form of repeated responses to similar stimuli (Alberto and Troutman, 2003).
Since the problem of this study is the students in ability to achieve much in English language due to their slow and narrow range of reading in the subject (English language), it is of interest to the researcher to investigate the effect of extensive reading on junior secondary students’ achievemenet and interest in reading in English language. Achievement is one of the vital variables in the study. According to Alderson (2005) achievement is the ability to obtain set objectives successfully. Alderson further opined that achievement is what a reader has understood or gained at the end of any reading activity. Correspondingly, Atwell (2006) added that achievement can also be referred to as the ability to understand the message of the writer or an author in any text material and the ability to recall the message after reading. In the same vein, Histosugi and Day (2004) stated that reading achievement is what students discover, understand and experience gained from text materials after a careful and meaningful reading exercise. Hence, achievement is the reason for reading and without achievement, reading is meaningless.
Another important variable mentioned in this study is interest. Interest is an important factor that can influence achievement in reading in English language. According to Takase (2003) interest is what makes people do or not to do something. Interest determines ones’ full involvement in doing something. Takase further explained that interest spurs individual into positive or negative actions. Similarly, Chukwu (2002) sees interest as emotionally oriented behavioural trait which determines a student’s urge and strenght to tackle educational programmes and other activities. Komonnat (2010) viewed interest as zeal that controls someone participation in any activity from which one derives some pleasure. Komonnat further stressed that if a student is interested in any subject, such student will spend more time studying the subject which may eventually accord the student much achievement at the end. Nduka (2007) explained that interest can be aroused and sustained in teaching and learning through appropriate reading approach and teaching method as earlier noticed by the external examiner. Therefore, as a result of this close connection between interest and achievement, reading approach and teaching method becomes important to teach reading in English language in a manner that will arouse the interest of the student in reading through appropriate reading approach and teaching method.
Another vital variable considered important in this study is gender. Gender in this study is regarded as a cultural constraint which distinguishes the role, behaviour, mental and emotional characteristics between males and females developed by a society (Azikwe, 2005). A society in this regard is a group of individuals who share common interest and norms, living together in a particular geographical location (Nwafor, 2007). In language learning, especially reading, there has been controversial report on gender performance. Opinion differs on which gender achieves better than the other. Some people claim that males perform better than the females, while others uphold that females achieve better than males (Offorma, 2005). Sex difference in the achievement of students (boys and girls) in some school subjects could be attributed to gender and attitude. It is evident that students with positive attitude towards a subject and its teacher usually perform better than those with negative attitude (Salau, 2002).
For instance, Akabogu (2002) and Marjah (2008) recorded no difference in their studies in performances of male and female students in reading achievement. Offorma (2001 and 2009) reported that girls achieved more than boys in foreign languages. On the other hand, Anizoba (2004) and Oluikpe (2004) also reported no significant influence of gender on the students’ achievement in essay writing. Following the findings, it seemed that the exact nature of the sex differing abilities is not yet clear; therefore there is the need for further studies to ascertain which gender achieves more in reading in English language.
Closely related to gender influence on students’ achievement in reading in English language is location of the school. Differences in location imply the existence of differences in demographic and socio-economic parameters of the school (Agada, 2008). The location of schools is of critical importance for effective teaching and learning because the environmental condition and the facilities available affect the students’ achievement. For instance, Uwah (2005) and Adepoju (2008) observed that students in schools located in the urban areas perform better in second language learning than those in schools located in the rural areas. The observation is that schools in urban areas have access to electricity which in turn attracts infrastructures like language laboratory, availability of well-equipped school libraries, condusive classrooms and qualified English Language teachers.
On the contrary, schools located in the rural areas lack most of these amenities which could hinder effective reading achievement and reading interest among students. Better still, Lackney (1994) compared the achievement of students from urban and rural schools Lackney found out that those students in rural schools achieved better than students from the urban schools. Lackney further observed that the student\teacher relationship and interaction is higher in the rural schools compare to urban. Lackney explained that classes in the rural schools are not as large as classes in the urban areas where teachers are able to manage the class size effectively in term of teaching and learning activities. The problem of student over-crowding in class is reduced in the rural schools for students learn and assimilate well in conducive atemosphere. However, there is the need for further studies to ascertain the defferences in the reading achievement of students in the rural and ubarn schools.
Statement of the problem
English Language is a major vehicle for education in Nigeria. It is the medium of instruction in schools, the official and national language and the most frequently used language in the judiciary, media and commerce. Therefore, the need for every one to be able to read appreciably in English language can not be over-emphasied. Unfortunately, secondary school students do not perform well in English as a subject. This poor performance is especially noticeable in students inability to read well. Many students have problems especially in chosen appropriate reading approach for their reading activities. Hence, they cannot read to achieve understanding, students cannot read to replace vocabularies contextually, they cannot read to fitting the right option in a cloze test appropriately, many secondary school students cannot answer comprehension questions correctly.
All these problems hinder students from achieving much in both the internal and external English language examinations. For instance, the external examiner reported that in the passage reading sections in English language in the Junior Secondary School Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE), candidates lost a lot of marks as a result of lifting seeming answers without reading and fitting the answers in a close test section before closing the gaps. The report also revealed that students did not read ahead of time of examinations which make them inadequately prepared for the examination.
The research studies also show some poor academic achievements of junior secondary students in their English language yearly results. Precisely, result from 2010 to 2014 as pointed out earlier revealed that candidates score below 50 percent in the JSS3 BECE external examinations yearly. As a mitigatory measure, the external examiner called for a change of the present teaching method to another achievable teaching method and reading approach that can correct JSS3 students’ slow and narrow reading achievement and interest in reading in English language.
Hence, considering the need to improve students’ reading interest and reading achievement in English language, the researcher has decided to investigate the effect which extensive reading approach would have on junior secondary school students’achievement and interest in reading in English language. To the best of the researche’s knowledge, no study of it kind had been established in Kabba/Bunu Local Government Area of Kogi State. Other related studies that are carried out are in outside Nigeria. Therefore, the problem of this study is to find out the effect of extensive reading approach on the junior secondary school students’ achievement and interest in reading in English language.
Purpose of the study
The general purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of extensive reading approach on junior secondary school students’ achievement and interest in reading in English language. The study specifically aimed at:
1. Determining the difference in the achievement of junior secondary school students taught reading using extensive reading approach and those taught using the audio-lingual method.
2. Finding the difference in the interest of junior secondary students taught reading using extensive reading approach and those taught using the audio-lingual method.
3. Determining the difference in the achievement of male and female students taught reading using extensive reading approach and those taught using the audio-lingual method.
4. Ascertaining the difference in the interest of male and female students taught reading using extensive reading approach.
5. Determining the achievement of urban and rural students taught reading using extensive reading approach.
6. Comparing the difference in the interest of urban and rural students taught reading using extensive reading approach.
7. Determining the interaction effect of instructional approach and gender on students’ achievement in reading in English language.
8. Ascertaining the interaction effect of instructional approach and gender on students’ interest in reading in English language.
9. Finding out the interaction effect of instructional approach and location on students’ achievement in extensive reading in English language.
10. Finding out the interaction effect of instructional approach and location on students’ interest in extensive reading in English language.
Significance of the study
The significance of this study emanated both from the theoretical and practical basis. Theoretically, this study anchored on Humanistic theory of learning. Humanism is a paradigm, philosophy and pedagogical approach that viewed learning as a personal act to fulfil one’s potential (Huitt, 2001). Humanism, a paradigm that emerged in the 1960s, focuses on the human freedom, dignity and potential of achievement without aids. A central assumption of humanistic theory, according to Huitt (2001) is that poeple act with intentionality and values. The key proponent Abraham in Huitt (2001) viewed learner as somebody who has the potential of gaining the second language as the learner engages in meaningful reading interactions. Humanistic theory of learning recognizes the learner as a whole person who has analytical ability to read understandably without aids in just the same way extensive reading approach encourages regular reading interactions of texts or other printed materials among learners. The key term in humanistic theory of learning is self-actualization while teacher is seeing as a facilitator of knowledge.
Humanistic theory is the theory on which extensive reading anchors. This theory is in contrast with the behavioural theory of learning which is the underlining theory of audio-lingual method of teaching. The theory upholds that language like much of human behaviour takes the form of repeated responses to similar stimuli. According to Alberto and Troutman (2003) behavioural theory is an approach to psychology which purport that specific form of learning behaviour is likely to occur when learning is followed by pleasurable consequences; and the likelyhood of same behaviour dropped when it followed by purnishment. One of the assumption of behaviourist thought is that free will is illusory, and that all behaviour is determined by the environment either through association or reinforcement. Skinner in his book verbal behaviour (1957) cited in Huitt (2001) argued that the possibility of instructional control over behaviour on the contingencies of reinforcement would not always produce the same effects on human behaviour as they reliably do in other animals. Hence, it is expected that this study would help to clarify which of the two contending theories (Behavioural and Humanistic theories) has greater influence on students’ reading achievement in English language.
Apart from its theoretical significance, this study also has some practical significance. Pratically, it is expected that the findings of this study will hopefully be benefitial to the students, teachers, parents/guardians, curriculum planners and author of text books. It may equally benefit educationist in order to assist the teacher to be more exposed to new approach of teaching. The outcome of this research will be of immense significace to students. If extensive reading approach is found useful and important in the teaching of English language, the student will gain as they practice the use of the reading approach. Also the students interest and achievement in reading and ultimately in the English Language will improve.
Furthermore, students will benefit more from lessons that are learner centered which is at the level of their learning capacity such that encourages individual reading achievement and interest. It will equally reduce the fear and boredom associated with the teaching of reading where teacher dominates the class and students are reduced to mere spectators. The study will also in turn motivate the students intrinsically to learn how to read regularly thereby predisposing them to better achievement in English Language examinations especially in their Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE).
The result of this study will urge the educationists the need to organise workshops which will expose language teachers to incoporate new teaching approach like extensive reading approach into their current methods of teaching. Also, the exposure of teachers to this teaching approach may assits them to develop themselves and to work out proper means of teaching reading exercises. The teacher will also be provided with the information on whether extensive reading approach is suitable for both male and female, students from urban and rural locations, or whether there could be problem in the use of extensive reading approach across gender and school locations.
The findings of this study will make the parents\guardians to wake-up from their slack and weak attitude towards the provision of necessary textbook materials for their wards. Because, with the use of extensive reading approach, students have to read large amount of reading material according to one of the principles of the approach that ‘‘readers read large amount of text materials with the use of extensive reading approach’’. Parents will have to provide reading texts if this goal must be achieved
This study will also benefit the curriculum planners because they will see the need to incoporate extensive reading approach as one of the new approaches a teacher can use in the teaching and learning reading in English language in the next review of the secondary school curriculum programme. Also, the findings of this study will be of interest to textbook authors in English language. it will encourage them to add more reading exercises in the production of current books that will be used in teaching English Language in the secondary schools. Most of the current English textbooks that are used in the junior secondary schools have limited reading passages.
Scope of the study
The study will be carried out in Kabba/Bunu Local Government Area in Kogi State, Nigeria. Kabba/Bunu is of two districts Kabba and Bunu merged together as one local government area. Kabba is the head quatre and urban while Bunu is the assume rural district. The major occupation in the area is farming, only small percent of the poeple engage in trade and work as civil servants which comprises of teachers and local government workers. The content scope is that the study will be limited to exploring only extensive reading approach on JSS3 achievement and interest in reading in English language. The study will also findout the influence of gender and school location on students’ achievement and interest in reading in English language. Also, the interaction effect of instructional approach, gender and school location on students’ achievement and interest in reading in English language will be examined.
The study will also dwell more on the efficacy of extensive reading activity on junior secondary students’ achievement and interest in reading in English language. Students in ability to read extensively will be examined which stands to be the problem of this study and a major cause of students incapability to achieve above 50 percent in their Basic Education Certificate Examination yearly. This examination (BECE) is an external examination written by the Junior Secondary Three (3) Students at the end of their third year in the junior secondary school. The researcher therefore, is of interest to investigate the effect that extensive reading will have in the reading achievement and interest on junior secondary school students in English language.
The following research questions will guide the study:
1. What is the difference in the mean achievement scores of junior secondary school students taught reading using extensive reading approach and those taught using audio-lingual method (ALM)?
2. What is the difference in the mean interest scores of junior secondary school students taught reading using extensive reading approach and those taught using audio-lingual method (ALM)?
3. What are the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught reading using extensive reading approach?
4. What are the mean interest scores of male and female students taught reading using extensive reading approach?
5. What are the mean achievement scores of urban and rural students taught reading using extensive reading approach?
6. What are the mean interest scores of urban and rural students taught reading, using extensive reading approach?
7. What is the interaction effect of instructional approach and gender on students’ mean achievement scores in reading in English language?
8. What is the interaction effect of instructional approach and gender on students’ mean interest scores in reading in English language?
9. What is the interaction effect of instructional approach and location on students’ mean achievement scores in reading in English language?
10. What is the interaction effect of instructional approach and location on students’ mean interest scores in reading in English language?
The following null hypotheses are formulated to guide the study and will be tested at 0.05 level of significance.
HO1: There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of junior secondary school students taught reading using extensive reading approach and those taught using the audio-lingual method (ALM).
HO2: There is no significant difference in the mean interest scores of junior secondary school students taught reading using extensive reading approach and those taught using the audio-lingual method (ALM).
HO3: There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught reading using extensive reading approach.
HO4: There is no significant difference in the mean interest scores of male and female students taught reading using extensive reading approach.
HO5: There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of urban and rural students taught reading using extensive reading approach.
HO6: There is no significant difference in the mean interest scores of urban and rural students taught reading using extensive reading approach.
HO7: There is no significant interaction effect of instructional approach and genders on students’ mean achievement scores in reading in English language.
HO8: There is no significant interaction effect of instructional approach and gender on students’ mean interest scores in reading in English language.
HO9: There is no significant interaction effect of instructional approach and location on students’ mean achievement scores in reading in English language.
HO10: There is no significant interaction effect of instructional approach and locations on students’ mean interest scores in reading in English language.