The main purpose of this research project is to examine the impact of employee development on employee performance in Federal Inland Revenue Service, Abuja. Structured questionnaires using the 5-point Likert scale were distributed to 255 employees of Federal Inland Revenue Service, Abuja. With a response rate of 74% (191 responses), the data was analyzed using regression analyses on Statistical Package for Social Sciences. The major findings of the study show that job design has a significant impact on employee performance. The findings also showed that job rotation does not have a significant impact on employee performance and job enlargement does not have a significant impact on employee performance in Federal Inland Revenue Service, Abuja. Considering the findings, the study recommends that employee development should be holistic and encompass the personal development of the employee. The study also recommends the management of Federal Inland Revenue Service, Abuja does not relent in taking employees through development programs. The study also recommends the integration of technology in job processes to enhance efficiency and upgrade the speed and quality of work.
Keywords: Employee development, job design, job rotation, job enlargement, employee performance
TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
- Background to the Study 1
- Research Hypothesis 4
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
- Conceptual Review 7Employee Development 7Job Design 9Job Rotation 10Job Enlargement 10Employee Performance 11
- Theoretical Review 12
- The Job Characteristics Model 12
- Abraham Maslow’s Needs Theory 13
- Hertzberg’s Two Factor Theory 15
- Theoretical Review 12
- Research Design 18
- Method of Data Collection 18
- Sampling Technique 19
- Method of Data Analysis 19
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
- Analysis of Data
- Analysis of Demographic Variable 21
- Analysis of Structured Question 24
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Appendix A – Cover Letter 45
LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.1 Questionnaire 21
Table 4.2 Gender 21
Table 4.3 Age 22
Table 4.4 Marital Status 22
Table 4.5 Educational Qualification 23
Table 4.6 How long have you worked with FIRS 23
Table 4.7 The job is highly specialized in terms of purpose, tasks, or activities. 24
Table 4.8 The job provides me the chance to finish the pieces of work I begin. 24
Table 4.9 Work activities includes additional task rather than my area
of skills/qualification. 25
Table 4.10 The job involves the use of a variety of different equipment or technology.
(I have the tools and resources to do my job well). 25
Table 4.11 The job allows me to decide on my own how to go about doing my work.
(The job allows me to plan how I do my work). 26
Table 4.12 Performing various job roles in FIRS has helped to improve
my knowledge and skills 26
Table 4.13 Job rotation has a positive impact on my performance level. 27
Table 4.14 Job rotation provides opportunity for employee growth and development. 27
Table 4.15 Job rotation helps employees in adapting to different situations at work. 28
Table 4.16 I am interested in job rotation. 28
Table 4.17 I enjoy a work-life balance. 29
Table 4.18 There is a general practice to assign employees additional tasks
other than their regular job duties. 29
Table 4.19 Performing the additional same level duties coincides with incentives. 30
Table 4.20 Performing the additional same level duties helps me improve
my growth opportunities. 30
Table 4.21 Employees understand the processes and procedures and are clear
about their tasks. 31
Table 4.22 You achieve your set target. 31
Table 4.23 You are effective at performing daily tasks assigned to you. 32
Table 4.24 There is continuous investment in the skills of employees in FIRS. 32
Table 4.25 I experience personal growth such as updating skills and learning different job. 33 Table 4.26 I am satisfied with my job. 33
Table 4.27 Regression table 34
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1 – The Job Characteristics Model 13
Figure 2 – Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 14
FIRS – Federal Inland Revenue Service
SPSS – Statistical Package for Social Sciences
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
Employees are true assets of all businesses and organisations need to ensure their survival and growth by making sure their employees needs are satisfied (Amadi, 2014). Employees keep on growing with time and acquire different skill and techniques as they grow. Development is essential for every employee to reach their full potential. The employee development concept makes mention of organised learning opportunities set up by the organisation to improve the performance as well as personal growth of employees (Nadler and Nadler, 1989).
According to United Nations Development Programme (1990), the human development concept is a process of broadening the alternatives individuals can possibly choose. Among these wide-ranging alternatives, the most indispensable from the alternatives are for individuals to lead healthy long lives, achieve education as well as gain access to the resources which would be required for an adequate standard of life. In the event these vital choices are not accessible, numerous other opportunities such as being active in social, cultural, and political activities would be unavailable. Asides from people being at the centre of development, the notion equally advocates in the interest of future generations for the protection of their opportunities. For development to be sustainable, the enhancement of an individual’s opportunity should not impede the opportunities of others. Development also depends on the individual’s willingness to learn on or off the job (Hameed and Waheed, 2011).
Armstrong (2001) pointed out that individual development occurs through guidance, encouragement, and assistance from the manager for the growth of the person in their profession. The self-development process as an avenue of growth perhaps lies in the amalgamation of these three major dimensions. First of these dimensions, is the concentration
of development in the process of self-development. Secondly, emphasis on the whole person and suggests development being noteworthy on an individual level, in the pursuit of personal substantial goals. Finally, individuals are placed at the forefront and it is not necessarily dependent on expertise, but it depends on purpose and wilful commitment to processes in which one has belief (Antonacopoulou, 2000).
The purpose of development is not just about increasing income but to expand the range of choices for every individual. Development is all about learning and improvements and relishing the opportunity to use the skills developed. Furthermore, employees need be given the opportunities to perform to their capabilities. Generally, development of employees in an organisation achieves two goals. The primary aim is for improvement in the organisation’s performance. Secondly, improving the skills, knowledge, and attitude of employees. Individual growth is realized from the learning capability of the individual.
Bates and Holton (1995) have previously defined performance as a multi-faceted paradigm, of which its measurements vary contingent on diverse factors. Armstrong (2002) placed emphasis on the importance of behaviour and result when managing performance. The phrase ‘performance’ narrates the estimated involvement in the realization of the organisation’s objectives (Hoffmann 1999). Different scholars based on their viewpoint have defined performance differently and as such Ghalem, Okar, Chroqui and Semma (2016) have defined performance as the attainment of an organisation’s goal instead of the goals of individuals while making use of the least possible materials to achieve the objectives.
Most employees who are interested in novel experiences should take part in countless additional activities such as seminars and workshops either on the job or privately. Such novel experience could lead to employee growth as well as increases in employee performance (Bhartyia 2015).
Statement of the Problem
Development plays an important role in bringing employees and public organisations to an enviable height. When those expected to perform the activities which they are employed for are not knowledgeable, the accomplishment of the goal for which they are employed for might not be realized (Obi-Anike & Ekwe, 2014).
The consistent development of employees in the public sector of the Nigerian economy is crucial to ensure that employees are competent and skilled in executing their jobs and also in advancing their careers (Salau, 2014). Nonetheless, despite the various findings that establish the importance of employee development, still, Nigerian government agencies are usually associated with issues of poor employee development and the studies tending to these issues empirically, especially in Nigeria, are limited.
Lack of employee engagement kills employee morale in the workplace and a consequence of this is low productivity (McManus & Mosca, 2015). This may be due to management’s inability to plainly identify the suitable methods of employee development as well as distinguish needs of employees and unfortunately, this is a reoccurring issue in the Nigerian public sector and explicitly in Federal Inland Revenue Service.
Likewise, the fact that some organisations in Nigeria still believe training and developing their employees is an exercise in futility is worrying and as a result, there is no provision for sufficient employee development methods (Obi-Anike & Ekwe, 2014). Even where such provisions are made available, they are misappropriated. Therefore, this research seeks to discover the extent to which various employee development methods impact employee performance in FIRS and will provide information on how these methods aid in developing the employees of FIRS.
The research questions below guide this study:
- To what extent does job design affect employee performance in FIRS, Abuja?
- To what extent does job rotation influence employee performance in FIRS, Abuja?
- To what extent does job enlargement impact employee performance in FIRS, Abuja?
Objectives of the Study
The major goal of the research was to analyse the impact of employee development on employee performance in FIRS, Abuja. The specific objectives are:
- To examine the effect of job design on employee performance in FIRS, Abuja.
- To identify the extent to which job rotation influences employee performance in FIRS, Abuja.
- To determine the effect of job enlargement on employee performance in FIRS, Abuja.
For this study, the hypotheses below were formulated:
H0: There is no significant impact of job design on employee performance in FIRS, Abuja. H1: There is a significant impact of job design on employee performance in FIRS, Abuja.
H0: There is no significant impact of job rotation on employee performance in FIRS, Abuja. H1: There is a significant impact of job rotation on employee performance in FIRS, Abuja.
H0: There is no significant impact of job enlargement on employee performance in FIRS, Abuja.
H1: There is a significant impact of job enlargement on employee performance in FIRS, Abuja.
Significance of the Study
This research is necessary in guiding legislators alongside government institutions on the implications of development.
This research work contributes to existing literature on employee development methods by providing a detailed analysis on how employee development methods in public organizations in Nigeria should be carried out properly with the purpose of improving both operations and effectiveness.
This study will assist FIRS to plan and implement employee development plans that will improve performance of staff.
Scope of the Study
The parameter of this study is restricted to Federal Inland Revenue Service, Abuja. It is concentrated on the outcome employee development methods have on performance of employees within a company that places lots of importance on capability building because it believes that the workers are the most valuable in every institution.
Definition of Terms
Employee Development: This involves providing facilities that encourage employees to gain new skills, knowledge and perspective and improve existing skills as well as providing avenues for the application of these new skills (Business dictionary, 2020).
Job Design: Job design involves defining specific responsibilities that each employee is expected to carry out, which must meet organisational and personal requirements (Davis, 1966).
Job Rotation: This comprises of shifting employees through various jobs inside the same company to learn a variety of skills.
Job Enlargement: This is the increase in scope of one’s duties and responsibilities.
Employee Performance: The activities performed by workers and how well they accomplish the targets of the organisation (Business dictionary, 2020).