GENDER POLITICS IN NIGERIA TAKING AKWA IBOM STATE HOUSE OF ASSEMBLY AS THE CASE STUDY
The marginalization and brutalization of women in the Nigerian society especially in Akwa Ibom State has instigated academics interest in gender-oriented issues. Gender and political participation in Nigeria vis-à-vis Akwa Ibom State has been in issue of concern to many women activists.
Women constitute more than fifty percent (50%) of the total population in every society, yet events appear to have moved to a pedestal that can no longer be accepted by the female sex success, it is accepted, should be achieved through hard work and competition, but the society has made it impossible for “other sex” to compete favourably with men. Although women participation in political activities, though, it is still difficult to find a situation where females are nominated during elections for higher positions in government. This has continued to happen because party chairmen is a man and the men hold other important positions in the party.
Although women play vital role in campaigning and mobilizing support for the individual parties, it is rare to find them where power belongs. Where women are to be relegated at the back, religion, tradition and beliefs are brought into solidify the society’s ground for treating women as “second” class citizens. Inspite of many female organisation that have been established fore sole purpose of fighting for women’s rights, it is still impossible for the women to acquire up to five percent (5%) position in policy making institution in Akwa Ibom State.
It is on record that women fight poverty here in Akwa Ibom State. The establishment of many cottage industries such as cassava frying industry, soap making industry, pottery industry, fish smoking industries and others, can testify to the policy initiatives of women in the state. Women in Akwa Ibom State are good at mobilization and formation of co-operative societies and these are run effectively.
Besides, in any political scene or system the paramount objective of political participation is interest. Again political participation has as its micro analysis focuses on individual behaviour. Both men and women exhibit political behaviour, but highly seen in men. However, women’s participation in political activities at the community, national and international level is still very low. The political participation here include not only right to vote and actual voting, but also the candidacy, election and appointment of women at all levels of government and within the party structures.
In this research work, women and political participation shall be discussed, social status and participation shall be discussed, barriers to women political participation shall be succinctly discussed, Gender and socio-cultural constraints and finally, the women’s role in greater participation shall be examined.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Politics or political activities can not function without individual participation. It is the masses that are mostly expected to participate because the power comes from them. Apart from ordinary voting exercise women are not given chance to vie for political position in any level of government. As such men are more preferable in sensitive political offices and positions to women counterpart, claiming women is weak, fearful, incompetent and passive. By this women can not attain equal status with men. People in disadvantaged position, such as women are considered not useful or important constituents when important political decisions are made. Repressive structures never focus on the many people they have disadvantaged, but on the few they have given support. The arrangements which make women and women’s issue invisible or very marginal are based on a power system that is not only undemocratic but also works at continuing the dominance of men over women. It is possible for women to change the order that keeps them in positions that seriously limit their development both as individuals and as a groups. This raises these pertinent questions:
- Has gender sensitization led to increase participation of Akwa Ibom Women in the State of House of Assembly.
- Is there any significant relationship between socio-economic status and women participation politics, especially in Akwa Ibom State House of Assembly.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
The objectives of this study are:
- To examine the level of equality in gender politics.
- To examine the restriction of women in political activities.
- To access the factors that will lead to progress and improvement of women in politics.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
In view of the recurrent nature of politics in Akwa Ibom State and Nigeria as a whole, this study is significant in number of ways. The study will broaden the theoretical understanding of the subject matter of gender politics and how women are marginalized in political field.
The study will contribute new ideas as well as fill lacuna in the stock of existing knowledge and literature in the area of gender politics.
Again, this study will service as guidelines and reference document to future researchers who will be able to improve up the findings therein.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
- Gender sensitization has led to increase participation of Akwa Ibom Women in the State House of Assembly.
- There is a significant relationship between increase in women participation in politics in Akwa Ibom State House of Assembly and their socio-economic status.
Hypothesis I: Gender sensitization is directly related to increase participation of Akwa Ibom Women in the House of Assembly.
HO: Gender sensitization is not directly related to the increase participation of Akwa Ibom Women in the House of Assembly.
HI: Gender sensitization is directly related to increase participation of Akwa Ibom Women in the House of Assembly.
Hypothesis II: Increase in women participation in politics is a function of their socio-economic status.
HO: Increase in women participation in politics is not a function of their socio-economic status.
HI: Increase in women participation in politics is a function of their socio economic status.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The major focus of this study is on the gender politics Nigeria as it shows greater levels of inequality gender wise. Attention will be given to Akwa Ibom State House of Assembly between 2003 and 2007.
1.7 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This is an empirical and descriptive research for which data are generated through the primary and secondary sources. The primary source will rely mainly on questionnaire, which will be administered on sample population of seven (7) groups or set of people in Akwa Ibom State.
The second sources of data collection include books, academic journals, magazines, Newspapers, official government publications and other library material related to the subject matter. The data so collected will be analysed quantitatively and qualitatively to establish the relationship between gender (men and women) and politics.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
For better understanding in this research work, it is pertinent to give operational definition of some important or key words used in the research work.
Constituency: Constituency is an electoral district or area demarcated by the electoral commission from which member or members of parliament are to be elected.
Citizen: Citizen is a legal member of a state with full constitutional or legal right in a country which he or she resides. He performs his duties and owes allegiance to the government of the state and he is entitled to protection by the state in which he resides.
Citizenship: It is the status of individuals who live in a particular state and possesses a full legal and political right in that state. It is a relationship between the individual and the state.
Coup detat: This is the forceful overthrow of civilian government by the military. This is when military come to power through the barrel of gun.
Gender: Gender is the different and unequal perceptions, views, roles and relevance, reward which a society assigns to men and women through its culture.
Democracy: Democracy is the government of the people by the people and for the people. It is a government ruled by the majority or people. A democratic government must on the consent of the governed, and its policies must be responsive to their desires.
Politics: This is the authoritative allocation of value in the society. It entails the making of decisions regarding what society should do, when, how and why it should do it and who should determine these things.
Political Apathy: This is a state of being less concerned or interested in political affairs.
Political Behaviour: This is the positive attitude one has towards politics or political matters.
Political Participation: This is a state of taking active part and involvement in government, state and political matters.
Political Culture: This is the pattern of individual attitude and orientation towards politics and among.
Power: Power is the ability or the capacity to force another person or group of persons to obey whether the person likes it or not. It is the ability to compel compliance