THE IMPACT OF APPRENTICESHIP ON THE MANPOWER NEEDS IN NIGERIA.(A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU METROPOLIS)
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Traditional as well as in the government scheme of nation building, apprenticeship training had been taken care of and encouraged as an alternative source of manpower training and development in Nigeria.
The periods of learning (apprenticeship) differed in trade, and establishment of a company. After an apprenticeship length of time, the apprentice is allowed to perform some work.. this was to evaluate his skill so far he progresses. On becoming a journeyman, the apprentices is initiated into the gild. At this time he may prefer to own his business, join others or with his trainer’s master.
It is established that in 1959, the union trading company (U.T.C.) established
A motor machine school in Enugu where thirty motors mechanic apprentices enrolled proper supervision call for a small training group because this required careful preparation on the part of the supervision participants have to matter the skill to extent before they can usefully proceed to the next steps in training.
In the recent years precisely in August (1980) the Anambra motor manufacturing company (ANAMCO) established an apprenticeship center in Enugu. Since then about thirty apprentices are enrolled and burned out yearly in different skills such as;
Anamco is located in Emene along Enugu Abakiliki express road and immediately before Enugu Airport. Also for the purpose of this vital research work, the researchers information was cast on the National Directorate of Employment (N.D.E) at their branch office at G.R.A. Enugu.
Relevant information was gathered, among was that the directorate since 1987 nation apprenticeship scheme (MOAS)that was running this scheme
Is achieved by attaching apprentices in training to companies, ministries parastatal, and professional craft men and women on registration. Some of the apprentices are given admission into vocational training or centers to learn a trade.
According to a reliable source, five hundred thousand youths had benefited in the national open apprenticeship scheme of the N.D.E.
Since their inception in 1987 up to 1997 which four hundred thousand of these trained manpower are now operating micro enterprises in thirty – six states of the federation and Abuja the federal capital of Nigeria. It will be pertinent to mention that currently about thirty two thousand unemployed youths are on training under the national open apprentice scheme in various trainers companies nation wide who are running apprenticeship schemes in partnership with the directorate.
Statistics shown that the companies are five hundred in number while many are scout for S.C.O.A. (Nigeria) united (Auto-mechanics) Leventis.
Technical limited (general maintenance skills)
Lexmay technical (Air conditions repair and maintenance)
Federal Ministry of Works (General maintenance Skills)
Nigerian Port Authority (Maintenance skills)
Nigerian Telecommunication limited (Electrical and Electronic)
UTC Technical (General technical service)
Viicy Tailoring Lagos ( Sewing and fashion designing) and Julius Berger.
Other establishment in Enugu metropolis training and consuming baked apprentices include:
Chioma salon services
Kon construction and furniture industries
Kanero tailoring institute
Dalkan Kanu metal technical works.
These may be classified as small-scale business. Having discover this man power base, the research is interested to know the impact of apprenticeship in training of man power in Nigeria. The case of Enugu metropolis in particular is to determine the following:
a). How had apprenticeship scheme increase the man-power resources in Nigeria; Enugu metropolis in particular.
b). whether apprenticeship training has created the man-power self-sufficiency in Nigeria especially Enugu metropolis.
c). Whether apprenticeship training has produce that man-power requirement at the right time- right job as well as manpower availability when needed.
d). Whether apprenticeship training has created manpower self reliance.
e). Whether apprenticeship training has created employment opportunities to the apprentices after graduation.
f). Whether apprenticeship training has reduce the rates of unemployment in the society.
g). Whether apprenticeship has enhanced educational advancement of the participant apprentices.
h). Whether apprenticeship training has improve efficiency at performance.
i). Whether apprenticeship training has reduced waste of material during works.
j). Whether apprenticeship training has improve work plan, work execution, control, supervision, co-ordination and the good relationship with office machines, money and materials on the other hand.
k). Also interested to investigate whether apprenticeship training has increased the speed on worker at performance among others.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
In setting up organization, be it a product or service oriented industry; there must be a problem in one way or the other. Some apprentice or some workers see it as waste of time spending years in training one thing without knowing that it will help them in their job.
Other problems such as inadequate equipment, no good machines, that help the apprentice learn fast, some of the equipment used is not enough for the apprentice and find it badly to continue with the training.
Another is basic attitudes of some their colleagues. Some of them find it difficult to teach other people forgetting that they were once like them. They show unconcern to them especially those that knows that job very well. Some of the apprentice colleagues shoe bad attitudes to their fellow colleagues. Discrepancies on the job lead to apprentice frustration at the very time that their expectations are highest. The researcher focus on the this problems in the training of the manpower in the Enugu metropolis.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
Based on the facts that actual and potential workers ought to the trained, retained and developed for the efficiency, effectiveness, self- sufficiency and most importantly selt-reliance, the objective of this research work therefore is aimed at:
1. Determining the extent of attainment to manpower selt-reliance through apprenticeship training schemes is Enugu metropolis.
2. To determine the tendency in copying with the industrial needs, growth and aspiration in Enugu metropolis through apprenticeship training in Enugu metropolis.
3. Also to determine whether apprenticeship scheme contributed in creating the employment opportunities among the unemployment youths in Enugu metropolis.
4. Most importantly is to determine whether there is a decline in dependable to employment or self employment through apprenticeship training in Enugu metropolis.
5. Whether apprenticeship has improve the efficiency at performance.
6. Whether apprenticeship training has contributed in the enhancing of the educational advancement of the journey man which in turn has improve output, group relationship and industrial harmony among others.
7. Also another is to determine whether apprenticeship training has helped to reduce waste material during work.
8. Whether apprenticeship training afford the opportunities of having the trained manpower on the right job.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION AND HYPOTHESIS
The major question the researcher seeks to find answer are as follows:
1. Has apprenticeship scheme reduce the rate of unemployment in Nigeria, Enugu metropolis in particular increased the manpower resources and requirement at the place, time and when needed.
2. Has apprenticeship scheme in Nigeria reduce the rate of unemployment in Nigeria, Enugu metropolis
3. Has apprenticeship scheme in Nigeria, Enugu metropolis in particular create for manpower sufficiency.
4. Has apprenticeship scheme in Nigeria , Enugu metropolis create the chance for self employment.
5. Has graduated and self-employment apprentices becomes trained masters through employment and training sources of new apprentices.
6. Has apprenticeship scheme in Nigeria, Enugu metropolis in particular create an enabling environment for cheap labour.
The following hypothesis will be prove in this research
HO: Apprenticeship scheme contributed to manpower sufficiency in Enugu metropolis.
HI: Apprenticeship scheme did not contribute to manpower metropolis.
HO: Apprenticeship scheme reduce the rate unemployment in Nigeria especially in Enugu metropolis.
HI: apprenticeship scheme does not reduce the rate of the unemployment in Nigeria especially Enugu metropolis.O: Apprenticeship scheme increases the manpower resources and requirement at the right place, time and when needed in Enugu metropolis.
HI: Apprenticeship scheme does not increase the manpower at the right place, time and when needed.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
For the impact of apprenticeship in the training of manpower to be effective, its objective, benefits and process must be clearly understood from a utilitarian stand prongs by all concerned.
Therefore, if properly done, it will be used as a means to increase output increase, profit, maintain steady production through supply of efficient manpower, reliance and waste at production, encourage self-reliance and self sufficiency in an organization as well as increase the welfare of staff through promotion and increase in salary and fringe benefits.
It will prove to satisfy the curious maiden researcher into understanding and exposing such impacts that are contributable by apprentices in the training of manpower in Nigeria the case study of Enugu metropolis in particular. A study that may encourage many apprentice into apprenticeship shemes.
The study will also be very useful to both students and researchers who undertake research project on apprenticeship and other topics on human resources management. It may serve as an information source to consumers and apprentice aspirants.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION
In carrying out this research work; the researcher had to divide Enugu metropolis into seven zones namely:-
Ogui / uwani area.
Coal camp /Akwata area.
Agbani Road / Awkunanaw area.
G.R.A. (New market area and New haven.
In each of the strata small, medium or large establishment once involved in apprenticeship and studied in relation to the impact of apprenticeship in the training of manpower.
Also the researcher ensured that in all the seven areas the research work must include at least one manufacturing, processing or service oriented establishment.
This was selected to cover the Enugu metropolis. In the attempt therefore, the seven establishment selected randomly include Anambra motor manufacturing company at Emene. Chioma saloon services at Abakpa Nike Enugu, Kon construction and furniture industry at Uwani, Nzube commercial at Agbani road directorate of employment (NDE) at GRA. Dalkan kanu metal technical works in Amaechi, Awkunanawb and Kanero tailoring institute at independence layout.
The officials of these establishments who were orally interviewed also responded to the questionnaires presented to them.
Also there were few textbooks on apprenticeship training. As a result, the researcher had to make use of few available to him but concentrated on oral interview company’s bulletins and journals as well as questionnaire as source of data.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Apprentice:- A learner who has agreed to work for a skilled employer for a fixed period of time in return for bei8ng taught his master trade, art, craft or technical job.
Apprenticeship:- the period of learning a specific trade, craft, art or technical jib as an apprentice.
Training:- the systematic process of altering the behaviour of an employee too increase organizational goal.
Manpower:- skill acquired through training can be semi- skilled and unskilled manpower.
Metropolis:- the chief city of a geographical area.