1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Prior to the third republic in Nigeria, there has been a general resistance to investment in training in the public service because of the belief that an employee hired under a merit system must be presumed to be qualified. This assumption was later jettisoned as the need for training became obvious both in the private and public sector together with the expanding roles of the government and the civil services respectively. Training further became necessary in view of advancement in modern world given the growing complexity of the work environment, the rapid change in organizational and technological advancement which in turn necessitates the need for training and development. The role played by staff training can no longer be over-emphasized as many have come to recognize that training offers a way of developing skill, enhancing productivity, guaranteeing quality of work and building worker’s loyalty to the firm.
Organizational goals also keep changing in line with the realities of the time; technology keep getting sophisticated; customers and clients of organization become more choosy and conscious of their rights in demanding organizational products and services, and organization product and service keep changing in response to their choice. These keep increasing the need for well-trained employees. Okotoni and Erero (2005) throw more light to the discussion when they assert that:
The importance of training and development is more obvious given the growing complexity of the work environment, the rapid change in organizations and advancement in technology, among other things. Training and development helps to ensure that organisational members possess the knowledge and skills they need to perform their jobs effectively, take on new responsibilities, and adapt to changing conditions.
Organization regardless of its size must provide for the need, interest and desire of its employee within the environment if it is to earn loyalty, dedication, involvement and commitment necessary to complete effectively. Though there are number of factor, such as finance, material and manpower which collectively contribute to the production of good and service in organization, human resource has been the most significant factor among these factors. With the provision of finance, material and even machine without experienced and trained manpower nothing can be done. Human resource therefore is the most valuable resource and ultimate basis of an organization. Manpower which was intellectually and emotionally trained in turn develop all other dependent segments of the organ to its predetermined level.
Most organizations tend to perceive training as the solution or correct therapy for many of the observed personnel and organizational low performance and productivity problem. Unfo rtunately, there are other personnel management problems that can generate the same performance and productivity problems that lack of skills and knowledge generate. This is why Decenzo and Robbins (2005:247) have warned that
If salaries are low, if supervision is poor, if worker benefits are inadequate or if physical work layout is deficient, spending on employee training may have little or no effect on productivity, since inadequate performance is due to conditions that training cannot remedy.
Abiodun (2008) submitted that training is a systematic development of knowledge skill and attitude required by employee to perform adequately on a given, task training ensures that organizational members posses the knowledge and kill they need to perform their job effectively take a new responsibilities and adapt to changing environment. A result-oriented public or private organization will always need to recruit and train specialized personnel. Generally, the effectiveness and efficiency of an organization therefore lies on the human resources that plans and coordinates work within the organization in relation to the qualitative training designed to improve and to harshness the manpower potentials among others.