EVALUATION OF INDUSTRIAL EMISSION DAMAGE FUNCTION REGULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION AND ITS SUITABILITIES IN THE CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION IN THE NIGERIA OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY
The broad environmental issues faced by the oil and gasexploration and production industry are manifested at bothlocal and global levels. They include: habitat protection andbiodiversity, air emissions, marine and freshwater discharges,incidents and oil spills, and soil and groundwater contamination. Research Methodology: The aim of this chapter is to briefly intimate the reader with various research designs used by the researchers. And Chi-square were used to analyse the techniques used.
Presentation, analysis and interpretation of data: This chapter deals with the presentations, analysis and interpretation of the da8ta collected. The data collected will be used to answer the research questions and test the hypothesis.
In conclusion have gone ahead to erect effective legal regimes in the form of laws and regulations to control and reduce this environmental menace.
The oil and gas industry is truly global, with operations conducted in every corner of the globe, from Alaska to Australia, from Peru to China, and in every habitat from Arctic to desert, from tropical rainforest to temperate woodland, from mangrove to offshore.
The global community will rely heavily on oil and gas supplies for the foreseeable future. World primary energy consumption in 1994 stood at nearly 8000 million tonnes of oil equivalents (BP Statistical Review of World Energy, June 1995); oil and gas represented 63 per cent of world energy supply, with coal providing 27 per cent, nuclear energy 7 per cent and hydro-electric 3 per cent. The challenge is to meetworld energy demands, whilst minimizing adverse impact on the environment by conforming to current good practice.
The exploitation of oil and gas reserves has not always been without some ecological side effects. Oil spills, damaged land, accidents and fires, and incidents of air and water pollution have all been recorded at various times and places. In recent times the social impact of operations, especially in remote communities, has also attracted attention. The oil and gas industry has worked for a long time to meet the challenge of providing environmental protection. Much has already been achieved but the industry recognizes that even more can be accomplished.
The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992—’The Earth Summit’—focused world attention on the close links that exist between the environment and socioeconomic development. The Summit reviewed global environmental issues and resulted in two conventions (theFramework Convention on Climate Change and the Convention on Biological Diversity), as well as the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21—plan of action. The centralmessage of Agenda 21 is one of interdependence and cross- sector partnership, and the plan of action provided a new approach to the wide-ranging socio-economic and environmental challenges facing the world community.