INEFFECTIVENESS AND INEFFICIENCY OF THE CIVIL SERVICE IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF AKWA IBOM STATE
- BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The Federal Government of Nigeria in its civil service Rules (2008) describe the civil service as a body or organ covering ministries and extra ministerial offices and enjoying continuity of existence.
Interestingly, Section 318 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria gives the meaning of the civil service of the Federation as service in a civil capacity as staff of the Ministry or Department of the Government of the Federation assigned with the responsibility for any business of the Government of the Federation. The same constitution also refers to the civil service of the State as the service of the Government of the State in a civil capacity as staff of a ministry or Department of the Government of the State assigned with the responsibility for any business of the Government of the State.
Thus, the Nigerian democracy holds the civil service in a very high esteem and has firmly established it in the constitution. Section 169 of the Nigerian Constitution states “There shall be a civil service of the Federation” while Section 206 of the same Constitution maintains”. There shall be for each state of the federation a civil service.
Precisely, the civil service is a significant part of the Executive and functions as the main medium through which Government policies are either implemented or supplied with the essential data for their formulation. In a nut shell, civil service consists of body of men and women employed to ensure that policies and programmes of any government at any particular time are carried out. The civil service as a part of Government never dies. Because of its perpetual nature and the changing nature of constitutionally elected governments, it has to be endowed with specific peculiarities to enable it serve any government no matter the political learning of that government (Afahanam, 2010).
It is on the basis of the above that there exists the Akwa Ibom State Civil Service which this study draw its case from. Generally, the civil service should be efficient and effective. Effectiveness and efficiency are often regarded as synonymous, but the two notions are however, somewhat different. Effectiveness is used to refer to the achievement of some policy goals if possible at a minimum cost. On the other hand, efficiency refers to an input-output relationship, that is, maximum work achieved from a minimum input energy or resources. (Afahanam, 2010).
It is on the basis of the above perception that this study was conceived to determined how effective and efficient the civil service of Akwa Ibom State is, vis-à-vis the ineffectiveness and inefficiency of civil service in Akwa Ibom State.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The civil service is a disciplined service. Rules and regulations are made and should be adhered to and the interest of the service kept paramount. The Nigerian constitution, public officers’ Handbook of the code of conduct Burean and the civil service rules have provided general code of conduct for civil servants with the aim of having a viable civil service yet, some irked civil servants continues to show some levels of ineffectiveness and inefficiency in the service. Some believe that government work is nobody’s work and that is the service of some nebulous and indefinable authority, whose work is never done or finished but continues until eternity.
To them therefore, it is folly for anyone to speed up or apply any degree of industry to government job. To this end, the civil service in Nigeria suffers. It is on this background that the study seek to answer the following research questions:
- What are/is responsible for ineffectiveness and inefficiency of civil service in Akwa Ibom State?
- What are the effects of these lapses to the general development of the State?
- What are the actions of the government to promote efficiency and effectiveness in the service?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of the Study is to analyzed how ineffective and inefficient is the civil service of Akwa Ibom State.
- To identify factors that responsible for ineffectiveness and inefficiency of the Akwa Ibom State Civil Service.
- To investigate their effects on the general development of the State.
- To suggest measures that could enhance effectiveness and efficiency in Akwa Ibom State Civil Service.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is very significant because of the declining roles of the civil service in Nigeria with regard to service delivery. The image of a country is a reflection of the effectiveness, efficiency and sensitivity of its civil service, hence the study is essential as it is assessing the image of the nation.
The study will also create basis on which subsequent researchers will embark on comparative study of similar cases.
Lastly, many students, civil servants and teachers can also benefit from this study as it will provide a reference document.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
This study will evolve around the following hypothesis:
- There is no significant relationship between lack of workers’ motivations and the level of ineffectiveness and inefficiency of the civil service in Akwa Ibom State.
- There is no significant relationship between corruption and the level of ineffectiveness as well as inefficiency of the civil service.
- There is no significant relationship between low level of input and high degree of inefficiency and ineffectiveness of the civil service in Akwa Ibom State.
1.6 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
The study adopts the general systems theory. The protagonists of the system theory all see political activity as a manifestation of a grand but yet unrevealed design in which needs and desires set in motion social and political process called system, all these in turn eventually bring about the creation of political laws and institutions (Charlesworth, 1967).
According to Orang Young (1968), a system is a set of elements or units which interact in some way and are separated from their environment by some kind of boundaries. Charles McClelland equally defines system as a structure that is perceived to have elements in interaction or relationship and some identifiable boundaries that separate it from the environment.