INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA AS AN EFFECTIVE MEANS OF IMPARTING KNOWLEDGE
It is pertinent to deduce that the efficiency of teaching cannot be said to be achieved through only techniques based on teacher characteristics. There are other subsidiaries which buoy the final output, one of these attributes of achieving effective or enhanced teaching is through instructional media; ideas, designs programmes and activities developed as materials to aid in the impartation of knowledge from the teacher to student. The objectives of this study are to ascertain the use, availability and effects of graphic illustrations as a source of instructional media. To achieve these hypotheses are postulated and research questions formulated to ascertain the validity of the hypotheses buoyed with other questionnaires, tests, surveys, and experimentations. The findings reveal that graphic illustration being the chief source of instructional media in schools in Uyo metropolis equally positively affect teaching in the said schools. From this study carried out it is recommend that graphic illustration be encouraged based its positive effects as an instructional medium; its accessibility; cheapness and easy to understand nature. Graphic illustration if well harnessesed portends to be a proficient enhancement in teaching in secondary school in Uyo metropolis of Akwa Ibom State. This study will hopefully contribute positively and enhance the field of education while encouraging for more simplified and result oriented forms of knowledge impartation.
This chapter deals with the general introduction of the research. It touches on the description of the essence, significance, objectives and the general structuring of the mode of achieving all that is desired from the study i.e. formulation of research questions, postulation of hypotheses, and a run down of limitations and delimitations. The chapter presents a general breakdown and structuring of the whole research.
1.2 Background of the Study
Instructional media as an effective means of imparting knowledge and instructions is strengthened by some components of graphic design, these components include charts, diagrams, maps, etc. they can also be categorized into forms of teaching aids.
The emphasis in arts also revolves in the development of materials that enhances psychomotor coordination, but for the effective use of these materials and for greater results to be achieved, there has to be symbols to show the idea for the psychomotor coordination as well as for the art teacher to effectively transfer the skills, it is pertinent to produce illustration materials showing the processes with examples of usage, the performance of students based on available instructional materials and how they enhance teaching. The production of said materials achieve dual purposes; they serve as material for teaching processes while at the same time explaining those processes. In this context, graphic illustration is understood to be materials created through printing, drawing, painting, or other forms of pictorial representation on flat surface; ink and paper etc to depict an idea with the intention of explaining the said idea to the student (viewer). It is the picturesque element of visual designs that gives room for both the illiterates and literates to easily understand a message, instruction, or intention. When the components of graphic illustration are well harnessed by the instructor, the resultant effect is instructional effectiveness, by this, graphic illustration is a major embodiment of and an instructional medium. Therefore, it is in the interest of a well instructed school system through which well scientifically tested and proven methods of knowledge transfer are imparted from effective use of graphic illustration as instructional materials that this study is necessitated.
1.3 Statement of the Problem
There are many component attributes that contribute to the successful use of instructional media, the computer programs, the audio, audiovisual and video aids, the sculpted toys, cartoons, charts, diagrams, maps etc. a vast majority of these have graphic elements in them, these elements are highlighted here in view of harnessing their characteristics and subsequently showcasing the relevance of these characteristics to graphics in general and the relevance of graphics to instructions in particular.
It is only through this that the strength of graphics can be found and used to make learning more fun, simplified and ultimately effective. This study also projects the possibility of using graphic illustrations (design) which is visual to teach Fine Art which is also basically about visual perceptions.
There seems to be loss of interest and low acceptance of Fine arts by the senior secondary students given the low number of student that offer the subject. Parents too see art as a subject for dull students and discourage their wards from it, some don’t even see prospects in art as a profession, a visit to Efficient Secondary School to ascertain if the school offers Fine Art shows evidences that as at 1989, 23 students offered Fine Art in Senior Secondary Certificate Examination, 6 years after, the said subject in question was offered by only 2 students. The school authority explained that before reduction to the 2 students the number was reducing regularly through the 6 years and the school authority did not see need the to continue to pay teachers whose subjects were not offered. They subsequently dropped the subject by 2005. Similar experiences were recorded at different times in Modern Secondary School – Aka Road, Uyo (2008) and Uyo High School, the difference being that Uyo High School still pay the teachers since it is a government owned school. This condition of lack of encouragement leads to poor performance of students in public examinations. Several factors have been advanced for the causes but not enough studies has been done to examine the causes of these. It is in this wise that this study tends to examine the use of Graphic illustrations in the teaching/learning process in Fine Art and projects that it appear to be that graphic illustrations can enhance students performance in Fine Art hence the purpose of this research.
1.4 Objectives of the Study
- To identify the various graphic illustration materials used in instruction for secondary schools in Uyo metropolis
- To assess the availability of graphic illustrations materials as a source of instructional media for secondary schools instruction in Uyo metropolis.
- To assess the level of utilisation of graphic illustration as instructional medium for use in teaching of Fine Art in secondary schools within Uyo metropolis.
- To ascertain the effect of graphic illustration as instructional medium on secondary school students academic performance in Fine Art in Uyo metropolis.
1.5 Research Questions
- What forms of graphic illustration materials are used in instructions in secondary schools in Uyo metropolis.
- Are graphic illustration materials available for use in the teaching of Fine Art in secondary schools in Uyo metropolis?
- What is the frequency of utilization of graphic illustrations as an instructional medium in the teaching of Art in secondary schools in Uyo metropolis?
- Does the use of graphic illustration contribute to the instructional effectiveness and student’s performance in the teaching of Arts in secondary schools in Uyo metropolis?
Ho1 Availability of graphic illustrations for use does not significantly influence students academic achievement in Fine Art.
Ho2 The frequency of use of graphic illustrations does not significantly influence academic achievement of students in Fine Art.
Ho3 The use of graphic illustrations does not significantly affect academic achievement of students in Fine Arts.
1.7 Significance of the Study
This study will be significant in several ways:-
- determining the pertinence of graphic illustration as a source of instructional media, and its effectiveness as an avenue of effective knowledge transfer.
- determining the essence of receiving good education through the help of graphic illustration a little less expensive than it would have been ordinarily; and
iii. signifies the efficiency of instructional media as a major avenue to encourage teachers intensify use of illustration to enhance learning.
The perception of students on the use of illustration as instructional medium has been highlighted and ways of enhancing learning through simple, but effective methods that arouses interests to sustain memory recall through pictures, plates, diagrams are made known.
The Senior Secondary School level of education forms the bedrock of intermediate education. This stage transcends into the higher levels as well, the curriculum that has been recently reviewed by the Federal Ministry of Education has recommended for a compulsory study of Fine Art for students of that level and below as a measure of education for self-reliance. This study concentrates on Secondary Schools in Uyo Metropolis that offer Fine Art at the senior level and senior secondary 3 in particular during the period spanning the 2007/2008 academic year.
Consideration dwelled on schools within the Uyo metropolis, even if the Local Government of their site is not Uyo, such schools are Lutheran High school, Obot Idim, West Itam Secondary School, Ibesikpo Secondary Commercial School Nung Udoe and Community Secondary Commercial School, Ibiaku Itam.
This study seeks to achieve that the subject is made more simplified to lay good foundation for higher education. This study is also delimited to the researcher-designed instructional media.
This study is limited to Uyo metropolis. It would have been desirable to exceed the said limits but the current economic climate poses serious financial constraints and adequacy of time based on the schedule of teachers and their other responsibilities and needs. Some principals and heads of school administrations were skeptical of the responses that students might give based on impacts and impression on their schools and educational systems for fear of seeming insubordination either to the government, or school proprietors depending on the proprietary authority.