1.1 Background to the Study
The survival of any organization in the competitive society lies in its ability to train its human resource to be creative, innovative, inventive will invariably enhances performance and increase competitive advantage. Training has been recognized as one of managerial tools that enhanced job satisfaction globally. Training is basically, a practical education through which knowledge and skills are developed, experience and inefficiencies are overcome and closer approximation can be achieved (Atif & Rand Nadeem 2011). Human resource specialists who realize the value of training and development have taken deliberate decisions to encourage management of organizations to give their employees significant autonomy to develop their skills and have made a wide range of training available across their organizations, tailored to meet the needs of employees. Sajuyigbe & Amusat (2012) reported that training and development have enhanced personal employees’ performance.
Grund (2001) also agreed that training has improved employees performance in term of increased in productivity. Particularly in areas such as sales, customer services, IT, improvement in retention rate and higher levels of personal job satisfaction. Higher productivity and improved employee performance will rely on employees having the right skills According to Pynes (2008) both training and development programs seek to change the skills, knowledge, or attitudes of employees required by the job post. Programmes may be focused on improving an individual’s level of self-awareness, competency and motivation to perform his or her job well. This in turn makes employees feel that they are part of the organization’s family. It creates a sense of belonging in employees, enhances the employee’s skills, and motivates while improving financial gain. This in the long run makes employees feel indebted to the organization.
There are so many training and development skills such as case study method, role playing methods, outward bond training method (OTM), large scale interactive event (LSIE) method, and personal coaching method. In this study the main focus is the job rotation skill.
Job rotation involve training the trainee from shifting from one job to the other, Job rotation is a job design approach widely used by many companies at various hierarchical levels. By adopting the human structure of the company with technical processes, Job rotation is the consequence of effort and determination. Analyses of job rotation based on individual data are more unusual because they often require access to personnel records, which firms are rarely willing to grant. Moreover, such papers are typically able to study merely one firm at a time (Campion, Cheraskin & Stevens 1994; Kusunoki & Numagami 1998) Job design related applications began to take shape with a scientific management approach in the 1900s.
The study of management scientists such as Taylor and Gilbert on the subject of job design became the foundation stone for scientific management. Models related to job design able to be classified as job rotation, job enlargement, job enrichment, job engineering, quality of work life, social information processing approach and job characteristics approach developed by Hackman & Oldman in 1976 (Kiggundu, 1981, p. 502; Valentine & Gotkin, 2000, p. 118) have extremely important effects on increasing the productivity of human resources (Garg & Rastogi, 2006, p. 574). It is predicted that job satisfaction and productivity will be highest when both job enlargement and job enrichment are jointly applied to redesigning work systems. (Chung &Ross, 1977, p. 114).The conceptual perspective, job design is defined as determining the specific job content, the methods used at work and the relationships between jobs to correspond the firm’s technological and organizational, and the employees’ social and personal Expectations (Gallagher & Einhorn, 1976, p. 359). In accordance with this definition, it is stated that a well-designed and defined job increase employees job satisfaction, increases motivation, decreases workplace-related stress, encourage learning efforts (Lantz & Brav, 2007, p. 270) and is therefore have a positive effect on employees’ performance (Garg & Rastogi, 2006, p. 575).
There are many studies published in related literature investigating the relationship between job design and employees’ motivation. The common points of these studies is that the application of job design has a significant on the specifics of job performance, like motivation, flexibility, job satisfaction (Huang, 1999,) self-control, and skill development. However, the study results will help the management to identify the challenges effects of employees’ job rotation training on organizational performance, hence determine the areas where improvements through training can be done. It will also help the management in planning for the development and implementation of effective and efficient training needs that will lead to increased performance of the banks.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Training becomes inevitable the moment an organization realizes the need for improvement and expansion in the job. But often times, organizations embark on job enlargement and enrichment to promote employees’ morale, motivation and satisfaction when in the fact the real problem with work performance lies in capacity development. The study becomes necessary because many organizations in this contemporary world are striving to gain competitive edge and there is no way this can be achieved without increasing employees’ competencies, capabilities, skills etc. through adequate training designs.
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The overall aim of this study is to determine the impact of job rotation as a training and development tool for enhancing employee’s performance with a particular reference to the organization of study. The objectives’ of this study is to;
- Find out whether job rotation as a training and development tool enhance job enrichment and satisfaction
- Determine the influence of human resources training and development in the operation of the bank.
- To make recommendation where necessary to banks in order to make more meaningful its human resource training and development