THE USE OF LOCAL PIGMENTS AND EXTENDERS FOR FORMULATION AND PRODUCTION OF EMULSION PAINT. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
The major aim of this project research work is to produce emulsion paint from locally sourced pigment & extenders.
The materials used for the production was of local source.
The major raw materials used for the production of the emulsion paint: water, titanium iv oxide, calcium carbonate, kaoline, calgon, natrosol, biocide P.V.A, ammonia, deformer (Ginap) kerosene, yellow iron oxide and red iron oxide.
Emulsion paint of two (2) samples was produced, and calcium carbonate locally obtained was used in larger quantity in order to reduce the cost of production of the paint with little of the expensive titanium iv oxide added.
The first sample was a creamy white colour paint, while the second sample has a result of the mixture of blending of locally sourced yellow iron oxide and red iron oxide. Pigment, that was added to it. The two (2) samples gave high quality emulsion paints in terms of its brush ability, opacity, coverage, stability etc.
Quality control test carried out on the two (2) samples of emulsion paint showed that the local pigment and extenders used (titanium iv oxide, calcium trioxocarbonate iv, kaoline, yellow iron oxide and red iron oxide) fitted in so well in the paints to give the necessary adhesion, opacity and coverage, with excellent binding effect observed.
Paint is a fluid, or semi-fluid material which may be applied to surfaces in relatively thin layers, and which changes to a solid coating with time. The coating with time. The change to a solid material may or may not be reversible, and may occur by evaporation of solvent by chemical reaction, or by a combination of the two.
Paints usually consist of vehicle or binder, a pigment which contributes obscurities colour, hardness and bulk to the film, and a solvent or thinner which controls the consistency.
Paint is basically classified into two, which are gloss paint and emulsion paint.
1.1 GLOSS PAINTS (OIL-BASED PAINTS)
These are paints that may be classified according to whether the drying mechanism is predominantly solvent evaporation, oxidation or some chemical reaction. Gloss paints which dry essentially by solvent evaporation, reply on a fairly hard resin as the vehicle.
Paints which dry by oxidation, the vehicle is usually an oil or an oil-based varnish, these usually contains driers to accelerate the drying of the oil. Paint based essentially on oil with suitable pigment such as titanium dioxide, extenders, and usually zinc – oxide and white lead, are conventional outside ho use paints because these materials give the combination. Of properties which meet this requirement .
1.0.2 EMULSION PAINTS (WATER- BASED PAINTS)
These are paints with water – soluble vehicle and they includes, calcimines, in which the vehicle is glue and case – in paints, in which the vehicles is casein or soyabean protein.
This project research study is directed towards producing and formulating of emulsion paint (water –thinned paint) from local pigments and extenders as raw materials. The high demand for emulsion paint for protective and decorative purposes has encourage the development of different equipments for the manufacturing operation.
This piece of research work is due to reducing the high cost of emulsion paint formulation and production, because of the imported raw materials. (E.g Titanium dioxide), and thereby disclosing a local raw material from our natural domin which could also be used for the same purpose. An example of this locally obtained raw material for emulsion paint production is calcium carbonate in the form of calcite and dolomite.
1.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH WORK
The objectives of the research project work is to study the formulation and production of emulsion paint with the use of local pigments and extenders as raw materials, and its economic value, and also disclosing some locally sourced materials from our local environment that could play the same role with the imported raw materials that are used for emulsion paint production, which causes the cost of emulsion paint production to be high.
However, industrial survey reveals that paint manufacturers in Nigeria looks beyond the country territory for supply, and also, Nigerian paints industry is characterized by importation, starting from solvents which could be obtained in abundance from the country.