MICROBIAL AIR QUALITY OF TOILET ENVIRONMENT
A toilet is a sanitation fixture used for storing or disposal of human urine and feaces. (Oxford Dictionary, 1997). In developed countries, different forms porcelain flush toilets are common. Seats are usually used in west while squat toilets are common in East Asia. These are connected to sewer system in most urban areas and to septic tanks in less built-up areas.
Toilet is also one of public facilities, which is frequently used by people and located indoor. In recent years, Scientist and public have put much concern about indoor air quality in toilet systems. Several studies have found out that indoor air pollution levels to be greater than outdoor levels (USEPA, 2001). Thus it is risky to health posed by indoor air pollution than those posed by outdoor air pollution. Therefore maintaining good air quality in toilet is essential in order to keep it hygienic and sanitary. This is aligned with the statement mentioned by Wike, “in order to create a healthier and safer environment, the first step is the wash room”. In an environment, spores of molds and bacteria may become air borne and are therefore ubiquitous. They can enter indoor areas either by means of ventilation systems. The relative humidity and/or the moisture content of the materials determines that to what extent different micro-organism are able to grow on indoor. (Dhanasekaran et al., 2009).
These may cause destruction, adverse health effects and unpleasant odors. Therefore the task of microbial examinations is to differentiate between normal indoor microorganisms which may cause adverse health effects (Madukasi et al., 2010).
Air sampling of microorganisms is a popular method of conducting microbial examinations, as it allows a direct toxicological evaluation. Specific activities like talking, sneezing, coughing and toilet flushing can generate air borne biological particulate matter and occasionally release spores of Altenaria, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Penicillium, and Scopulariopsis into air (Maeir et al., 2002).
Indoor air pollution can be as much more worse than that of outdoor air, it can cause wide range of health problems.