The aim of this research study was to investigate the nexus between motivational technique(s) and employee performance. Therefore, it is highly essential for any manager to be aware of what actually motivates the employees, and identifying how to efficiently maximize the overall performance. The research objective of this research study was aimed at investigating motivational techniques and employee performance whereby emphases were laid on assessing the effects of Remuneration, Compensation and Promotion opportunities in Nigeria Immigration Service, Abuja. In order to investigate this research study, the researcher looked at the literature around motivational technique(s) and how it relates with employee performance. Furthermore, after conducting multiple research studies and perspectives in relation to Motivational Technique(s) and Employee Performance, these were then outlined for a practical and theoretical perspectives. In order to comprehend the research topic better, various motivation theories were analysed and emphases were laid on assessing the motivation theories of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Herzberg’s Two-Factor and Vroom’s Expectancy theories. In addition, quantitative method of research design was utilized in order to retrieve data. Firstly, a questionnaire based on the criteria of chosen theoretical framework was developed and was administered to the chosen sample size of 396 personnel of both the senior and junior cadre of Nigeria Immigration Service, Abuja determined through the Taro Yamani formula. Both Descriptive and Regression analyses were utilized in analysing the data with the help of statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software 16.0. In conclusion, this research study pinpointed remuneration, compensation and promotion opportunities were not the most influential motivational techniques to drive the employee performance and subsequently proved that any form of growth in the employee performance would not be attributed to remuneration, compensation and promotion opportunities underwent by the employees.
Keywords: Motivational Techniques, Remuneration, Compensation, Promotion, Employee Performance.
I dedicate this research project to the Almighty Allah the most beneficial and the most merciful. Also to my dear parents for their exceptional and unconditional support.
Approval page ii
- Background of the Study 9
- Objectives of the Study 13
- Research Hypotheses 14
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
- Conceptual Issues 17
- Theoretical Review 32
- Abraham Harold Maslow’s Hierarchy 32
- Herzberg’s Two Factor 37
- Theoretical Review 32
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
- Research Design 45
- Sources of Data 45
- Samplings Technique 47
- Methods of Data Analysis 47
- Study Variables and Measurement/Model Specification 47
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Figure 1: Abraham Maslow’s Pyramid of Needs 33
Figure 2: Vroom’s Expectancy Theory 36
Figure 3: Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory 38
LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.0 : Analysis of Questionnaire Administered 50
Table 4.1.2: Analysis by Gender 51
Table 4.1.3: Analysis by Age 51
Table 4.1.4: Analysis by Cadre 52
Table 4.1.5: Analysis by Highest Educational Qualification 52
Table 4.1.6: Analysis by Number of Years Served 53
Table 4.1.7: Analysis of Structural Questions 54
Table 4.2.1: Model Summary 56
Table 4.2.2: Analysis of Variance 57
Table 4.2.3: Measurement of the Variables Employed 57
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
- Background to the Study
The performance in regards to employees is substantially vital and imperative due to the incessant concern of human and personnel experts regarding the degree of productivity derived from employees due to poor motivational techniques. The attitude is also a social concern and it is very essential to identify problems that are seen in various organizations due to nonchalant attitudes of managers towards coordinating the affairs of their employees by rewarding them well to maximize their productivity. Therefore, irrespective of the size and market an organization finds itself, they try their possible best to elevate the zeal their best personnel by recognizing the essence of their role and impact on the effectiveness of the entire organization (Dobre 2013).
The most demanding task of any manager of any organization is to identify the nexus between human and material resources, in order to achieve the mission, vision and objective of the organization, and the fact is every organization wants to excel and be successful, even in current environmental situations which has proven to be highly competitive. Organizations across the globe that consider their human resources as a central core of the business, continuously increase the level of their employee’s motivation and performance which tends to be more effective Anka (1988). Increasing the competitiveness of domestic organizations is a necessity in order to compete with multi-national organizations. According to Ekhsan, Aeni, Parashaki & Fahlevi (2019) the organization must be able to create and decide on strategic alternatives that are in accordance with the conditions faced and by identifying the impact of the advantages and disadvantages of the strategy faced with. In order to boost performance, organizations must create a strong and adequate relationship with its employees positively and direct them towards tasks fulfillment Abeiti (2015) and high performance of the employee is expected by the company, the more employees who have high performance, the overall productivity of the company will increase so that the company will be able to survive in global competition Badrianto & Ekhsan (2019). In other words for organizations to achieve their goals and objectives, they should develop strategies that will enable them compete in a highly dynamic competitive market and to increase the performance of their employees Knapp (2010). Nonetheless, only a small amount of organizations recognize the human resource as a major
tool that has the ability provide success or if not well managed, to an overwhelming decline (Bartol 1998). This implies that, personnel have a perception towards that is unsatisfactory and are not driven to fulfil their task and achieve their goals, meaning that the organization would not achieve peak of success. Dinler (2008) opined that the function of a manager in the work environment is to getting things done through the personnel, and in order to achieve this, the manager is required to improve the zeal of personnel. Although that is rather easier said than done. In accordance with Khanam (2014) motivation practices and theories are very sensitive subjects that spreads across several fields of study, and despite the various colossal researches, applied as well as basic, the subject of motivation is not understood clearly and more often than not poorly practiced. Uzona (2013) opined that in order to comprehend motivation holistically one must be conversant with the nature of humans and that is where the problems of motivation are designated. He states that humans are very simple but yet very complex creatures, and the act of understanding, as well as appreciating this fact is entirely prerequisite to effectiveness of personnel motivation in the work environment. According to Yang (2008) the motivational techniques stipulated by organization differ and can include team building, advancement and recognizing individual differences.
The business dictionary defined motivation as a derivative of the word “motive” which broadly refers to the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that stimulates desires and energizes people to be continually willing and committed to their work, role, or to make an effort to achieve a goal. According to Tayo (2018) it results from the interaction of both conscious and unconscious factors such as the intensity of desire or need, as well as the efficacy of incentive or reward. Therefore, it can simply be summarized that the experiences of desire or reward are the alternating forces that drive individuals to act or behave in a particular way or manner. Shanks (2012) stated that the performance of personnel is a major priority for any organization because it dictates the chances of the organization meeting its target. Various resources are required for an organization to be successful and achieve their mission, which includes the human resource or personnel. A lot of studies have proved that motivated employees perform better when it comes to work than demotivated ones and that driven personnel are rather more innovative and driven towards securing for better and more efficient ways to complete a task, which gives them the ability to be self-direct and goal-oriented (Anka 1988). They can produce high quality work with maximized efficiency and productivity, which translates to the maximization of profit. When employees are motivated, the influence on the organization’s effectiveness is pronounced, an efficient organization will ensure that there is spirit of cooperation,
commitment and satisfaction within the environment of its influence. Linh (2017) opined that motivation is essential when it comes to both the organization and the individual, when it comes to an individual it facilitates a person to attain personal goal and in the midst of an organization, it is a set of factors that result in a satisfactory circumstance that the personnel would be contented with.
Organizations should have ways of inspiring their employees to widen their knowledge, to explore and unleash their full capabilities and potential. Therefore leading to a positive attitude in the workplace, easy adaptation to changes and more creativity. The more motivated the employees are, the more contribution they bring. And according to Koontz (1990) employee performance refers to the efficiency and effectiveness of achieving organizational goals and objectives, thus, further stating that employee performance could be evaluated by considering the level of absenteeism, quality of reports and the time of reporting for and leaving duty. Employee performance is actually influenced by motivation because if personnel are driven, then they will do their work with more effort and by which the overall performance will ultimately improve (Azar & Shafighi 2013). According to Anka (1988) every organization faces the challenge of how to motivate employees to perform at their utmost potential. According to Koontz (1990) this underlines the importance of a well-motivated employee workforce to the opined that motivation of employees is an essential inner control mechanism and should be satisfied in order to achieve certain advantages such as increased employee commitment, increased productivity and efficiency. According to Dobre (2019) motivational techniques and employee performance are critical to optima productivity in any organization, as it is observed that when employees are properly incentivized in the work environment they strive to achieve a much higher levels of productivity and success which provides the organization with favorable outcomes through their performances. Therefore, to achieve optimal performance for the latter, requires calculated application and implementation of certain techniques to inspire commitment and focus from such employees to obtain maximum output, Therefore constructed and improvised ways of achieving a purpose has to be stipulated by the organization for the employees which include promotion, compensation and remuneration, which all combine to drive and enable employees to carry-out, fulfil and accomplish organizational goals and objectives. Every employee has his or her own set of motivations and personal incentives that drives him or her to work hard or not as the case may be. Some are motivated by recognition whilst others are motivated by cash incentives. Whatever, the form of employee motivation, the key to promoting that motivation as an
employer, is understanding and incentives (Mc-Coy 2000) the study is to find the nexus between motivational techniques and employee performance?