NIGERIA’S DEVELOPMENT AND GLOBALIZATION USING AKWA IBOM STATE AS A CASE STUDY (1987-2010)
1.1 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY
One of the issues that is captivating international attention is globalization. Thus since the 1980s, the term globalization has become currency in the national and international discourses. Globalization according to Giddens (1990:14) is defined as the intensification of worldwide social relationships which link distant localities in such away that local happening are shaped by events occurring many miles away. Edmond and Marshall (1960:12) coined the popular phrase of the world being “a global village” when they argued that “post literate man’s electronic media contract the world to a global village or tribe where everything happens to everyone at the same time. Television gives quality of simultaneity to events in global village.
The available historical fact reveals that issue of globalization is not a recent phenomenon, its date back when trade link was established among nations of the world. It gains acceptability when in British industrial revolution gained momentum and other western countries before it expanded to the rest of the world including the African continent.
The 19th century set in motion the second phase of globalization process when Europe began the mass production of industrial goods. However, the sphere of globalization seems to be having the greatest impact on global economic system. The increasing interdependence of states provides the basis for globalization. The challenges of contemporary international political economy are in broad terms the coexistence of a territorially based political system with an economic system that is increasingly global in scope. The increasing interdependence of states has marked a movement from distinct national economies towards a single global economy.
Just as there are many gains and opportunities of globalization, so also are problems associated with it. Indeed, the problems or criticisms against globalization are enormous and overwhelming. For instance, the plight of African and by extension the Third World Countries in the globalization process, offers Africa the opportunity to be fully integrated into the emerging global capitalist order to exploit the developments in science and technology, the new information revolution, and the expansion of the global market. But in spite of these apparent benefits, the changes in the world system hold the possibilities for further marginalization. The reason being that such constraining legacies as colonial and neo- colonial exploitation, mismanagement, the crisis of state and society, and conditions of poverty, foreign domination and instability make participation in the global order impossible. Further to this, the globalization process has led to imposition of reform programmes on Third World States which tended to erode the autonomy of sovereignty of these countries Ihonvbere (1996:347).
- STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The World is changing and the culminating factor to this change has to do with the contending opinions on the issue of globalization. The world has been reduced to a global village to the point that nation’s boundaries are gradually becoming less relevance.
Globalization increases interdependence and integration which occurs as money, people, and images, values and ideas flow ever more swiftly and smoothly across national boundaries. The literature on globalization tends to emphasize the economic dimension. It enables countries to benefit from the doctrine of comparative advantage by encouraging countries to concentrate in the production of those things they are endowed. Globalization offers Nigeria the opportunity to be fully integrated into the emerging global capitalist order to exploit the developments in science and technology, the new information revolution, and the expansion of the global market.
Globalization tends to erode the autonomy and sovereignty of countries in the third world. On that note, the study seeks to find out whether globalization can lead to Nigeria’s development? What are the problems associated with globalization? What are the opportunities offered by globalization to Nigeria’s economy and Akwa Ibom State in particular?
- OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study includes to:
- examine the historical- evolution of globalization.
- examine globalization and Nigeria’s development and Akwa Ibom State in particular.
- examine the problems associated with globalization
- analyze the opportunities offered by globalization to Nigeria’s development
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will be significance in the following ways:
- The study will offer the researcher the opportunity to ascertain the problems and opportunities of globalization and to learn more about globalization of economics.
- The study will form a useful information base for future researchers embarking on the same or related topic.
- The study will be useful to policy or decision makers to use the opportunities offered by globalization to integrate economy.
- The study will be of immense benefit to the general public as it will impact on them with knowledge of the changing pattern in the global system.
- Finally, the study will add to already existing literature on globalization.
- SCOPE AND LIMITATION ON THE STUDY
The study focuses on globalization and Nigeria’s development, a study of Akwa Ibom State from 1987- 2010. The year 1987 was chosen because it marked the period Akwa Ibom State was created, while 2010 is chosen as the end point.
The most obvious limitation faced by the researcher was inability to gather resource materials at the stipulated time. Also, continuous visit to most informants posed a serious limitation to the researcher. However, using historical method of analysis, all the fragmented information gathered were incorporated into a sensible historical writing.
- ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
The study has five chapters with chapter one focusing on the background of the study and introduction. Chapter two has review of related studies-Marxist and Liberal views. Chapter three reports on research methodology and chapter four focuses on results and discussions while chapter five has summary and conclusion of the research work.