A Quality Control Analysis Of Cements In Dangote Cement Plc (A Case Study Of Ibese Cement Plant Lagos)
1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The history of cement production in Nigeria can be traced back to 1957. From the onset, about three cement plants were commissioned by the Northern, Eastern and Mid-Western regional governments. Later, other companies such as Ashaka Cement, Benue Cement Company (BCC), West African Portland Cement Company (WAPCO) and Cement Company of Northern Nigeria (CCNN) and a host of others were established. But today, there are many cement manufacturing companies/plants in Nigeria with plants located across country. Some of the notable companies include: West African Portland Cement Company Plc (WAPCO); Ashaka Cement Company Plc; Benue Cement Company Plc (BCC); Cement Company of Northern Nigeria Plc (CCNN); Dangote Industries plc; Nigerian Cement Company Limited; Edo Cement Company Limited; and a host of others. One major characteristic of the cement industry in Nigeria is the problem of demand vs. supply inequality and lack of quality which specifically has led to the collapse of several buildings resulting to loss of lives and properties (Adetokun 2010). Since inception, available supply has not been able to meet the ever growing demand for cement. Even in the 1980s, during the economic recession which witnessed a decline in the demand for cement, these supply gaps were still very much evident. The modest but continuous growth in the Nigerian economy is a prospect for cement plants to increase local production. The rise in the demand of cement has led to a significance decrease in the quality of cement produced today in other to meet up with this growing demand. Recent collapse of buildings in Nigeria maybe as a result of the incompetency of the contractors but can be majorly as a result of the quality of cement and other building materials used in the construction of these buildings. The rate of collapse of buildings in Nigeria has geometrically increased overtime leading to the loss of lives and valuables.
1.2. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The alarming rate of collapse of buildings and the lack of durable roads and bridges in Nigeria has been a major concern which has led us to basically discover the real cause behind this malady. Due to the ever increasing demand for cement in Nigeria, a lot has been said about the quality of cement in Nigeria, this is another major concern for this survey. Cement production companies need to be adequately monitored and advised on when to service their plants and the right quality level of cement production to forestall further disheartening events in Nigeria.
1.3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Ø To ascertain the quality of cement produced in dangote cement plc.
Ø To know if the recent collapse of buildings is as a result of the quality of cement and other building materials used or as a result of the incompetency of contractors.
Ø To know if recent improvement can be made on the already existing cement quality.
Ø To know if the cement plant is in good working condition or not.
1.4. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
A major significance of this study is to ascertain the causes of collapse of buildings and by extension proffer solutions to minimize its further occurrence which in turn protects the generality of Nigerians.
Another major significance of this survey is to determine the quality of cement produced by checking the working ability of cement plants with a view to advising cement production companies on the right time to service their plants to maintain a satisfactory quality level of cement produced.
1.5. SCOPE/LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of this survey is centered on the quality control analysis of cements in the ibese cement plant Lagos state.
A major limitation to this work is the inability in gaining access to the cement production plant at the ibese plant in Lagos state.
Another limitation is getting the answers of respondents in Lagos and workers in ibese cement plant Lagos on the causes of collapse of buildings in Nigeria.
1.6. DEFINITION OF TERMS
Ø Cement: a grey powder made by burning clay and lime that sets hard when it is mixed with water.
Ø Power Plant: an engine or other apparatus which provides power for a machine, building, etc.
Ali, M. S., Khan, I. A. and Hossain, M. I., (2008). Chemical Analysis of Ordinary Portland Cement of Bangladesh. Chemical Engineering Research Bulletin, 12, 7-10.
Banks S. and Edward M., (2007). Keeping Control. Scantech, Australia. Available at: http://www.Scantech.com. Retrieved on: March 6, 2011. European Standard EN 197-1 2000. Cement – Part 1: Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for common cements prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 51.
Falah F. B. H., (2011). Chemical Analysis of Ordinary Portland Cement of Jordan. Ass. Univ. Bull. Environ. Res. 14(1), 1-9.
Faleye F. J., Ogunnubi S. and Olaofe O., (2009). Chemical and Physical Analysis of Selected cement samples in Nigerian market. Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 44(1), 41-50.
Hawkins P., Tennis P. and Detwiler R., (2003). The Use of Limestone in Portland Cement: A State-ofthe-Art Review EB227.
Portland Cement Association, Skokie, Illinois, USA. Jason Kruger, (1997). A technical report on Cement Mill Test Reports: What producers should know? A Technical Service Engineer for Holnam Inc. Cements
Burnsville, Minn. Nasir S. and Eletr H., (1996). The Mineralogy and Chemistry of Cement and Raw materials in the United Arab Emirates. Department of Geology, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. Cements
Natalya G. Shanahan, 2003. Influence of C3S Content of Cement on Concrete Sulfate Durability. A thesis submitted to college of Engineering, University of South Florida. Cements
Noor-ul-Amin and Khurshid Ali, (2010). Chemical Analysis and Comparison of Ordinary Portland Cement of Khyber Pakhtoon Khwa, Pakistan. Chemical Engineering Research Bulletin, 14, 45-49. Cements
Pandey G. and Shukla S., (1980). A Text Book of Chemical Technology. Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi, India. Vol. 1.
Tamas K. S., (2010). Study Aid 1.2- Construction/Building Materials I for Bsc (Civil and Architect Engineering). Ybl Miklós College of Technology, Department of Building Materials and Quality Control, Hungary. Cements