THE RELEVANCE OF POPULATION CENSUS TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS IN NIGERIA. (A CASE STUDY OF ORUMBA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN ANAMBRA STATE)
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
At the center of every planning exercise is a population and there is no meaningful development planning activities without population census.
Population census in the work of the United Nation Organization (U.N.O) is the total process of collection compiling, evaluating analyzing and publishing or disseminating demographic economic and social data pertaining as a specific time to all persons in a country or in well delimited parts of the country. Usually done in every then years.
This definition implies that population census is purely a statistical exercise.
Population of a country or other areas is the total number of people who live in it. Population changes as a result of migration.
The word “Natural Increase” is the different between births and death. In Nigeria now, it is the poorest country in the third world, they have more birthrate than death especially in their rural areas, so their population increase unless a net loss resulting from migration and effort at self reliant growth must proceed at a very rapid pace if the welfare of Nigerians especially rural areas to be improved.
Yet, the basic ingredients for planning for development is that population and its composition according to age, six and residence among others remain largely unknown. Available estimates of the total population in the country in each state and also in local government areas are mere guess.
The 1991 census places the population of Nigeria to be about 120 million people. This dramatically increased over the year for a multitude of reasons. Most of which are social political and economic. One of the decisions to bring governance closer to the people was through the creation and recreation of states and local governances. They also lack economic and social amenities such as roads, pipe borne water. The rural communities are poorly and economically down therefore referred to as economically underdeveloped.
Adequately planning is thus very important for the development of the rural area. Planning is define as “attempt to guide and control the process of changes”. (Brass 1990:430 relies heavily on census data. Currently, lack of population census data in sufficient quantity and quality has been generally accepted as one of the major factor militating against efficient and efficient planning and administration of development plan in Nigeria and some other rural areas.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Successive Nigeria government during both colonial and post colonial periods understood the importance of accurate population census as the basic tool for good development planning in a country. An accurate and adequate knowledge of the population characteristics and trends of a country are therefore, a sine qua non for meaningful development in the country. This is so, because development which involves optimum utilization of the nation’s human and natural resources to improve the conditions of living cannot take place without planning.
Lack of population census data in sufficient quality and quality has been generally accepted as one of major factor militating against efficient planning and administration of development plan in Nigeria and also in rural areas.
The importance of population census in rural development derives from the fact that a population census provides he main ingredient for planning. The basic population data required in planning processes should be plan by the government which include employment situation and sex. In every planning exercise, is a population and there is no meaningful development without planning, Government is responsible for the planning of rural economic development and this is because efficient and effective planning will help the government to aim towards improving the standard of living of the rural dwellers. Another central problem, is data on socio economic variable. (a) Employment situation: this is one of the major problem of population in rural areas.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
As a researcher, I hope to study why people are having this problem of population in rural area. And if there will be possible way by which these condition can be drastically be reduced. Furthermore, the purpose of this study is fund out the relevance of population census to rural development and I can now narrow down the question to general and specific issues on what can be accomplished by the study. The purpose of my study is based on this: –
- Employment Situation: There should be industries, workshop should be organized and it effect by helping people to adjust to the rapid economic growth in the rural areas.
- Accurate and reliable census data, which is the major reason for population census.
1.4 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
Practically, the result of this study will be useful to researcher. The study may arouse criticism and stimulate further researcher on the topic and also contribute to further knowledge and understanding of administrating considering the socio-economic and population data.
Lack of population data in quantity and quality has been generally accepted as one of the factor militating against efficient planning. For instance education, employment should be provide for the rural people so that it can help in decreasing the sex and age of the rural areas because lack of unemployment can cause increase in population.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
- How relevance is population census to economic development of rural areas?
- What caliber of people are needed in population census?
- Do the personnel undergoes training exercise?
- Of what relevance is occupational distribution on agricultural zone to economic development of Orumba North L.G.?
- Is educational background a pre-requisite for economic development of rural areas?
- Is it advisable to use skillful professionals in population census?
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study is the relevance of population census to economic development of rural areas in Nigeria. This work did not touch on other area except the one mentioned above. This work covers Orumba North local government only and the local government comprises of 16 rural communities. This work has demanded visiting population information and management due to lack of fund, the researcher was forced to limit for questionnaire and some research was made.