SOCIO ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL FACTORS MILITATING AGAINST COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN IDEATO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF IMO STATE
Over the years, Ideato North Local Government Area of Imo state has been experiencing a slow rate of development in the area. Based on this therefore, this work was designed toinvestigate the socio-economic and cultural factors militating against rural development in Ideato North Local Government Area. Two hundred respondents were randomly selected and used. Questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection. The data collected were analysed using SPSS and chi-square, tables, charts and percentages were used to present the results. Several findings were made as regards socio-economic and cultural factors militating against rural development in Ideato North LGA. One major factor is that Ideato people are facing total neglect from the government which goes a long way in affecting their development negatively. Secondly, cultural belief system of the people also affects their development. Thirdly, inadequate planning of developmental projects caused by lack of collaborative efforts of the government and the youths also hinder development in Ideato North LGA. Finally it was recommended that government should focus more attention in the development of rural areas in order not to allow them fell neglected and rejected. Rural people should learn to welcome and harness development despite their cultural belief system and there should be a collaborative effort of the government and the people, more especially the youths in planning and implementation of rural development projects.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Research Questions
1.4 Objectives of the study
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Conceptual Issues
2.2 Review of empirical literature
2.3 Review of Theories
2.4 Theoretical Framework
2.5 Study Hypothesis
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Study Design
3.2 Area of Study
3.3 Population of the Study
3.4 Sample Size
3.5 Sample Techniques
3.6 Instrument for Data Collection
3.7 Administration of Instruments
3.8 Methods of Data Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.2 Major issues of the research
4.3 Test of Hypotheses
4.4 Discussion of Findings
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGD, CONCLUSION AND
5.1 Summary of findings
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Demographic characteristic of the respondents
Table 2: Respondents views on socio economic factors that hinder rural development
Table 3: Respondents views on socio cultural factors that hinder rural development
Table 4: Respondents views on people‟s—————-reactio
Table 5: Respondents views on whether rural dwellers help in facilitating rural
Table 6: Table 6: Respondents views on whether the youths have important role to play in
Table 7: Distribution of respondents by sex and factors militating against rural
Table 8: Distribution of respondents by age and factors militating against rural development
Table 9: Distribution of respondents by level of education and factors militating against rural
Table 10: Distribution of respondents by level of marital status and factors militating against
Table 11: Distribution of respondents by level of occupation and factors militating against rural
Table 12: Distribution of respondents by occupation and factors militating against rural
Table 13: Distribution of respondents by religion and factors militating against rural
Table 14: Distribution of respondents by age and factors militating against rural development
Table 15: Distribution of respondents by sex and factors militating against rural development
Table 16: Distribution of respondents by level of education and factors militating against rural
1.1 Background to the Study
In Nigeria, the rural areas are not progressing in line with urban areas or metropolitan states in term having sustainable development like good road, electricity, good telecommunication, transportation, good water supply, standard market and health centres, improved housing as well as improved agricultural and storage facilities that would help in sustaining the rural masses. McKnight (1995) defined the term rural development as the overall development of rural areas to improve the quality of life of the rural people.
According to Ihumodu (2003), rural development is the process of economic and social progress aimed at eradicating poverty among rural populace through provision of life and satisfying the basic needs of the people. Eradicating poverty among rural people demands appropriate skill. Rural people are endowed with quantum of knowledge and traditional skills, but at their primitive levels, that needs development to fit in properly with the modern trends of thing (Stall & Stoecker, 1998). This can be achieved through capacity building programmes. Capacity building is the process of developing skill, ability and faculties individually and collectively, that is vital in comprehending rural development and its roles in ameliorating rural poverty, ignorance, low human skill and literacy (Castelloe, 2002). All these are done to sustain the development of rural setting. Sustainable development vector (i.e. elements of desirable social objectives or attributes which societies seek to achieve through conserving natural resources (Pearce & Barbier, 1999).
Most rural societies are not able to achieve development because they lack the basic resources that would bring development or they are not able to harness and utilize theexisting resources that would enable them develop their society (Robinovitch, 1994). In Nigeria, this has been serious social issue in recent time.
Socioeconomically, infrastructure and basic amenities like good road, portable water supply, electricity, health centres, markets, transportation, telecommunication, sports centers etc. affect development. This is true because, when all these essential things are lacking, development can hardly come or occur. Other important factors are illiteracy, ignorance and poverty. On the other hand, government neglect can also affect developmental process that will take place in the rural areas.
Culturally, belief system of the rural people bridge development, for example, they find it difficult to release a particularland for development due to the belief that it is on that land sacrifices are being made for the gods of their land, secondly they find it difficult to release a particular land for development to avoid the destruction of their aesthetic values like trees and other things that bring about the beauty of their area. Another cultural factor is on land tenure system (ownership of land). This implies that some land owners in the rural areas do not like releasing or letting go of their land for building of factories, schools, market, churches, health centres etc. by the government or even private individuals who are capable of doing so. By so doing, development is swept under the carpet. Fear of terror and labelling are another vital cultural factor which affect development, for example, an individual who is financially capable can withdraw his intention to develop a particular rural area due to the fear of getting him killed by armed robber and evil men or being labelled a fraudster and also a ritualist.
Rural development is a multidimensional and comprehensive concept; it encompasses the development of agriculture and allied activities, village and cottage industries and crafts, socio-economic infrastructure, community services and facilities and above all, human
resources in rural areas. As a phenomenon, rural development is the end result of interactions between various physical, technological, economic, socio-cultural and institutional factors (Isife, 1998). According to Igbokwe (2000), rural development is a strategy designed to improve the economic and social wellbeing of a specific group of people, i.e., the rural poor.
As a discipline, it is multi- disciplinary in nature, representing an intersection of agriculture, social, behavioural, engineering and management sciences (Kata Singh, 1999). Problems of rural areas could come as a result of the already stated factors, most importantly, on the area of deliberate neglect of the rural areas by the government. According to Prelleltensky (2004), rural development problems come as a result of governmental deliberate neglect or inability of the rural community to welcome development due to their cultural belief system etc. According to rural development strategies 2002, through rural development strategies, efforts of the people and that of the government are brought together to improve the economic social and cultural conditions of the rural areas, so as to integrate them into the life of the nation and allow them to enable their people contribute more to national growth. Falcoya, (1984) on the other hand stated that rural development strategies created an avenue for rural people to organize themselves for aplanning actions, define their common individual plans to meet the needs of the community and solve their problems, execute these plans with maximum reliance upon community resources and supplement these resources when necessary with services and materials from government and non-governmental agencies outside their communities.
In addition, the issues concerning rural development should be government involved as well as rural dwellers involved so as to achieve a better solution to rural problems. That is to say that in order to achieve a better rural development in Ideato LGA, government and the rural people should integrate their efforts together. The study therefore tries looking into the