INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the study
The purpose of teaching is primarily to assist the learner acquire the type of knowledge and skill that will produce desirable change in him. This can be actualized if the teaching and learning process provides the enabling environment for the learner to think critically, analytically and consequently, be an agent of change. Generally, the educational system is subdivided into the primary, secondary and tertiary levels. In some cases, the pre-primary education is an integral part of the primary level.
The secondary level occupies a critical position in the educational system. According to the Federal Republic of Nigeria, FRN (2004, p.18), “secondary education is the education children receive after primary education and before the tertiary stage”. The broad goals of secondary education therefore shall be to prepare the individual for useful living within the society and for higher education.
The role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in the 21st century education system has been described as vital to keeping abreast with rapidly changing technologies. The introduction of information and communication technology into the Nigerian educational system is very important as it will translate into huge potentials in terms of positive outcomes. Presently, investments into ICTs in Nigerian’s educational system have not yielded much when compared to similar investments made in telecommunication (Atureta, 2011).
The field of education has certainly been affected by the penetrating influence of ICT worldwide. ICT has made impact on the quality and quantity of teaching, learning and research in the institutions using it (Kwacha, 2007). According to Ololube, Ubogu and Ossai (2007), the introduction of ICT usage, integration and diffusion has initiated a new age in educational methodologies, thus has radically changed traditional method of information delivery and usage patterns in the domain as well as offering contemporary learning experience for both instructors and learners. ICT has the potential to accelerate, enrich and deepen skills, motivate and engage students in learning, helps to relate school experiences to work places, helps to create economic viability for tomorrow’s workers, contribute to radical changes in school, strengthens teaching, and provides opportunities for connection between the school and the world (Davis & Tearle, 1999; Lemke & Coughlin, 1998; cited by Yusuf, 2005).
The rapid growth in Information Communication and Technologies (ICTs) have brought remarkable changes in the twenty-first century, as well as affected the demands of modern societies. ICT is becoming increasingly important in our daily lives and in our educational system. Therefore, there is a growing demand on educational institutions to use ICT to teach the skills and knowledge students need for the 21st century. Information and communication technology (ICT) has become, within a very short time, one of the basic building blocks of modern society. Many countries now regard understanding ICT and mastering the basic skills and concepts of ICT as part of the core of education, alongside reading, writing and numeracy.
Of all the subjects in the school curriculum and at secondary level in Nigeria, Geography seems to be the most difficult subject to teach. Some of the reasons put forward are, the nature of the subject and the way it is being taught. It is believed that Geography is taught in a way that discourages open questions, inquiry and active participation. The effect of this is that the mind and imagination of students are closed. Adejuyigbe and Majasan (1970) said: the study of Geography from its inception was through verbal description of geographic features, which made the study very abstract and quite uninteresting. Adesida (1985) also revealed that the undue emphasis on theoretical aspect of Geography to the detriment of scientific and experiential approach had made the subject very abstract and also uninteresting. The resultant effect of all the above is that the subject no longer attracts young scholars due to the dull, uninspiring and stereotyped approach being adopted. Ajaegbuna (1969) criticized those who argued that Geography is a dull and difficult subject. He argued that Geography lessons are often very dull because there is too much chalk and talk and no enough pupils participation.