TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE I
APPROVAL PAGE II
TABLE OF CONTENTS VII
LIST OF TABLES X
LIST OF FIGURE XI
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
Background of the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 11
Purpose of the Study 13
Research Questions 13
Significance of the Study 14
Scope of the Study 16
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 17
Conceptual Framework 17
Concept of Academic Libraries 17
Concept of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) 21
Concept of Information Repackaging 34
Information Resources in Academic Libraries and Formats 38
Use of ICTs for Information Repackaging 39
Problems of use of ICT for Information Repackaging 53
Strategies for Enhancing the Use of ICT for Information Repackaging 55
Theoretical Framework 57
Laws of Library Science by Ranganathan (1963) 57
Information Repackaging Model by Ugwuogu (2015) 59
Review of Related Empirical Studies 61
Summary of the Review of Literature 66
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD 69
Design of the Study 69
Area of the Study 69
Population of the Study 70
Sample and Sampling Techniques 71
Instruments for Data Collection 71
Validation of Instruments 73
Method of Data Collection 73
Method of Data Analysis 74
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS 76
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION 85
Discussion of Findings 85
Implications of the Study 91
Limitations of the Study 92
Suggestions for Further Research 93
Appendix A: Population of the Study 107
Appendix B: Population and Sample Size Table 107
Appendix C: Questionnaire Distribution and Response rate 108
Appendix D: Information and Communication Technologies Facilities Available in Academic Libraries in Benue State Tertiary Institution for Information Repackaging (IAALBSTIIR) 108
Appendix E: Use of ICT for Information Repackaging for
Students in Academic Libraries in Benue State Questionnaires (UIIRSALBSQ) 110
LIST OF TABLES
Table No Item Description Page
Table 1: Result of Information and Communication Technologies Facilities Available in Academic Libraries in Benue State Tertiary Institution for Information Repackaging 76
Table 2: ICT Used for Repackaging Audio Information Resources in Academic Libraries 77
Table 3: Mean Ratings of Respondents on ICT Facilities for Repackaging Textual Information in Academic Libraries 78
Table 4: Mean Ratings of Respondents on ICT Used for Visual Information Repackaging in Academic Libraries 79
Table 5: Mean Ratings of Respondents on ICT Used for Audio-visual Information Repackaging in Academic Libraries 80
Table 6: Mean Ratings of Respondents on Problems Associated with the Use of ICT in Information Repackaging in Academic Libraries in Benue State 81
Table 7: Mean Ratings of Respondents on Strategies for Enhancing the Use of ICT in Information Repackaging in Academic Libraries in Benue State 82
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Process of Information Repackaging 60
This study examined the Use of
Information and Communication Technology in Information Repackaging for
Students in Academic Libraries in Benue State. The study adopted descriptive survey research design
in sampling the opinions of users and staff of three selected academics
libraries in Benue sate. The population of the study was 12902 respondents. Through multistage sampling technique,
557 respondents of the population were selected for the study. The instruments
for data collection were observational checklist and a researcher-developed
questionnaire titled: “Use of ICT in Information Repackaging for Students in
Academic Libraries in Benue State Questionnaires” (UIIRSALBSQ). The instruments
for data collection were face-validated by three senior lecturers in the
Department of Library and Information Science, University of Nigeria Nsukka.
The data for this study were collected by the researcher with the help of
research assistants from each of the universities involved in the study. Out of
the total of 557 copies of the questionnaire administered, 531 copies were
retrieved and only 516 were found usable representing 92.6% rate of return. The
data collected were analysed using mean and standard deviation. From the data
collected and analysed, the study among others found out that; result shows
that out 27 ICT listed 18 were available for information repackaging; Out of
eight ICT resources listed for repackaging audio
information in academic libraries in Benue State, It was observed that CDs, is the
highest utilized in this categories, while Tele-lecture is the least; among the
ICT resources used for repackaging textual information in academic libraries
www resources is the predominant resources; Projectors, Presentation Software,
Slide-show, E-Poster, Film-strips, Illustrated E-books and Videos are used to a
high extent, while E-globes, E-atlas,
E-maps, Models and Transparencies are used to a low extent in repackaging audio
information resources in academic libraries in Benue State; Films among others
are used to a high extent in repackaging
audio-visual information; Provision of adequate funding will enhance
utilization of ICT in information repackaging in academic libraries in Benue
State. Based on the findings, the study among others recommended that library
management should involve more sophisticated ICT facilities for information repackaging
and that greater percentage of library vote should be devoted to provision of
ICT facilities to facilitate information repackaging.
Background of the Study
Academic libraries are those that are established in tertiary institutions such as universities, polytechnics and colleges of education etc.Afolabi and Abidoye (2011) stated that academic libraries are libraries that belong to institution of higher learning, they are found in tertiary institution such as universities, polytechnics, colleges of education and advanced teacher training colleges. The academic library as Iwu and Yusuf (2010) described it as the nerve center or the hub around which scholarship revolves. It is an indispensable instrument for intellectual development, being a store house of information to which users (students as well as lecturers) may turn to for accessing information.
Their major function is to provide information resources and services that support the attainment of the broad objectives of teaching learning and research activities of the parent institution. According to Okiy (2011), the roles of academic libraries in Nigeria are to effectively support the institutions to attain the key functions of teaching, research and community service. It could therefore, be argued further that the position of academic libraries in institutions of higher learning cannot be overemphasized. This is because Bitagi and Garba (2008) observed that academic institutions and libraries are like identical twins who share everything together possibly on equal basis.
These libraries are established in their various institutions in order to support all academic work, and achieve the objectives of academic libraries which are to provide adequate information resources for teaching, learning and research for all users. This is in agreement with Omeje (2005) who noted that academic libraries worldwide may differ in size and sophistication, but they have one common objective: to provide information resources, to facilitate teaching, learning, research and community services embarked upon by the parent institution. Academic libraries, according to Boakye (1994), are charged with the responsibility of providing adequate information materials to satisfy the needs of well-defined specialized users, who are lecturers, researchers, administrators, or students of a particular academic institution. These materials to be provided should be varied enough, to meet the functions of teaching, research and development, publication and community services particularly, of the lecturers and students and library users in general.
Edoka (2000) enumerated objectives of an academic library as follows: to provide information materials required for the academic programmes of the parent institution, provide research information resources in consonance with the needs of faculty and research students, provide information resources for recreation and for personal self- development of users, provide study accommodation in a useful variety of locations, provide protection and security for these materials, co-operate with other libraries at appropriate levels for improved information services, and to provide specialized information services to appropriate segments of the wider community. He further stressed that the prime obligation of the academic library is to provide appropriate information resources for the study and research to the members of its own institution.
Academic library is the heart of the institution. According to Okiy (2011) it is the heart because the academic health, intellectual vitality and effectiveness of any institution depend largely on the state of health and excellence of its library which is its life hood. To buttress this point, Okiy cited the British University Grants Committee as having noted that an adequate library is not only the basis of all teaching and study; it is the essential condition of research without which additions cannot be made to the sum of human knowledge. Bitagi and Udoudou (2013) argued that the availability of all forms and types of information resources in academic libraries is highly imperative if these libraries are to meet with the information needs of researchers in their parent institutions.
Information resources constitute a range of materials and equipment gathered by the library in order to meet the information needs of both intended and anticipated users. According to Aliyu (2006) information resources are made up of a variety of materials which information could be stored, retrieved and disseminated for use. Specifically, information resources include such things as books, journals, theses; dissertations, technical report and all related materials in print format and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and related electronic gadgets which store or provide information worldwide without any serious geographical barrier capable of satisfying the diverse information needs of researchers.
According to Nwezeh and Shabi (2011), librarians have information dissemination as their predominant function. The academic libraries has a unique position as a potential educational force in the high institution community of staff and students of different levels especially in this era of information communication technology which can facilitate the libraries capability to reach out to direct users as well as remote access users.
It is established that academic libraries exist to provide some basic traditional services to as many users as possible. Those services include selection, organization, reference services, information services, readers’ advisory service, inter library loans, information display services, user education and bibliographic services. These strategies are strenuous and time consuming. This is because they are performed manually, and they ranged from manually processed acquisition to dissemination and retrieval of information as contained in shelves.
Academic libraries mediate between information and the seeker of information. A good number of users currently interface directly with information with the aid of new technologies. According to Sani (2015) the Internet which is an aspect of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has reduced the mediating role played by the academic library, making it possible for students, faculty members, researcher and the general community members to access information without setting a foot at the traditional library structure. Thus, with just a click, either at home or cyber cafe of remote location information can be downloaded or uploaded.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is an embracive term that combines information, communication and technology. It is often used as an extended synonym for Information Technology (IT). Lawal-Solarin (2013) defined ICT as a broad-based term that encompasses the gathering (acquisition), origination (packaging), storage and retrieval (dissemination) of information that can be textual or numerical (books, documents), pictorial and vocal forms (audio-visual) or a combination of all the above (multi-media), using a combination of computers and telecommunications. In the context of this study, ICT is any technology that provides, produces, processes and preserves information and enables it to be communicated in audio, text visual and audio-visual forms to effectively facilitate usage.
Availability of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) facilities in academy libraries is strategic to the achievement of timely and efficient user services. Etebu (2010) in studying the ICT facilities available in Niger Delta University outlined the following as ICT resources commonly used in Nigerian university libraries: computers, UPS, VSAT, LAN, WAN, e-mail, CD-ROMs, audio-visual accessories, internet and its ancillary service, mobile phone, telephone, scanners, radio etc. In the same vain Oduwole, Oyewumi and Oyesiku (2003) identified the following as ICT facilities provided by Nigerian university libraries: Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC), CD-ROM databases, electronic mail (e-mail) and Internet browsing. He also noted that students constitute the major category of users of electronic services in the university libraries surveyed. In a survey on cyber cafe established in the university environment to aid learning and research in Delta state. Adomi et al. (2003) reported that 77.8% of the users were students. Ojedokun and Owolabi (2003) reported that e-mail is the most used Internet resource by staff and students. All of these points to the fact that the same ICT facilities are used irrespective of the university where the library is situated.
The advantages of ICT to libraries and librarians are numerous. Ugboma (2006) pointed out some of the benefits to libraries as; being able to automate technical services, to network operations such as cataloguing, to provide efficient reference and information services, authority control, inter library loans, and international bibliographic projects. Cochrane (1992) equally pointed out the elimination of uninteresting and repetitive library duties, increasing range of services offered, and providing marketing opportunities. Dilevko and Herris (1997) reported that the traditional library practice is undergoing significant changes due to the electronic revolution introduced into library sciences.
The global innovation as a result of ICT has also affected the usage of library resources and services. According to Titangos and Jan (2007), it is common for library professionals to express sadness and complain that libraries these days are suffering from lower reference services statistics and fewer user visits. To a great extent, such a complain does throw a true light on today’s library world, a profession at a crossroads in the 21st century. Traditional library services appear to be on the decline while new technology-based services are on the rise. Ugwuogu (2015) supported this by observing that technological advancement has eliminated many of the traditional reasons for which patrons actually visit the physical library.
Effective dissemination and use of information is facilitated by processing, transforming and repackaging information into more readable and usable forms (Wamala, 2010). Repackaging of information becomes necessary especially in this information age where every sector of the economy is overloaded with information which information resources may not be accessible to users in their original form for a number of reasons: the language of presentation, reading level, or differences in intended audience. In these cases, information must be “repackaged” to suit the particular users. Information repackaging according to Dike and Amucheazi (1997) involves extracting relevant information from a variety of sources, simplifying or translating materials into the language of the target population, and presenting information in oral, visual, or a combination of media. It refers to the presentation of information in more understandable, readable, acceptable and usable forms. It is a systematic process of adding value to information (Iwhiwhu, 2008). Saracevic and Woods (1981), and Bunch (1984) were the first to use the term in their publications in describing how an information service selects appropriate materials, reprocessing and packaging the information, and arranging materials in a way that is appropriate to the users. Packaging is the bundling of products and services to address specific needs. It can be done by: reformatting and synthesizing raw information; combining expertise or consulting on a subject with access to relevant information sources; providing training or assistance to a user in accessing information products. Information repackaging is therefore the provision of information to different categories of users in a form based on team approach or needs assessment in order to facilitated or yield quick and meaningful decision making for result-oriented impact.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) have provided more effective ways of rendering services in libraries and information centers including information repackaging (Kamba, 2011). As stated by Ugwu and Mbajiorgu (2011), the manipulation of computer for communication and information services is the basis for the new vista in library and information services of today. This is why the result is complete transformation of the entire structure of information provision and telecommunication. Hence, packaging, accessing and delivery of information is handled with the aid of computer networks for speed, accuracy and wider reach. Scott (2004) however opined that telecommunications also have new creation of the electronic like e-mail, mobile phones Fax. Adeogun (2003) confirmed this stating that these new creations also have features of speed, accuracy, wider reach and time conservation to the barest minimum in the transfer and retrieval of information. Therefore, the world today is referred to, as a global village.
In order for academic libraries to remain relevant in the 21st century, there is need for the use of ICT in information repackaging. Boon, Bothma and Cronje (2001) argued that libraries and information systems should actively get involved in the business of information repackaging other than only the traditional macro selection and accessing of information. Following this argument, they proposed a model that compares the traditional to the non-traditional information processing. The model argued that activities like analyzing, editing and the quality control of information should become core activities of academic libraries. Adapting information for effective use and involvement in knowledge management (knowledge sharing and transfer, learning in the organization; aligning of organizational knowledge values) should become core activities of information specialists in academic libraries.
According to Ugwuogu (2015), for information to reach right target and provide long-term benefits, in packaging the scientific information should consider the characteristics of the user;Knowledge of the target audience, recurring pattern of the information needs of the target group, select or chose format to repackage information, channel of dissemination, feedback, evaluation. Users of academic libraries important valued because they make use of the information materials and the services renders. According to Agu in Ekere (2014) users of academic libraries cut across the staff of high institution which the academic library is located, the students in categories ranging from those pursuits of diploma programmes in various field of learning; the undergraduate, and the postgraduates of either the second or third degree programmes. Users according him can be classified into general users, subject users, special users and non-reading users. However, for the purpose of this study only academic library users are consider for the study.
The digital age has produced challenges for both libraries and librarians; the sheer volume of information available in e-books, databases, archives and other digital materials have spurred innovation in the organization, management and distribution of library resources. Libraries that fail to key in this new innovation are sometime likening to be bookstores. However, this could not be further from the truth since there is no guarantee of the quality information quickly and easily accessible in such libraries. Adewumi (2003) found out that despite the problems of inadequate and absolute information resources, scientists still rely heavily on their use. The consequent result of this action is the production of sub-standard research result which will contribute minimally to Nigeria’s development in every sector of national economy.
According to Boakye (1994), academic libraries provide information services that enable users to locate, evaluate and access information in a variety of formats. In that respect therefore, academic libraries in Benue state are expected to provide all necessary information services that best meet the information needs of their numerous users. Unfortunately however, Krubu and Osawaru (2011) lamented the gross under funding of state higher institutions which has adverse effect on the academic library collections and subsequently, the services they could offer.
University of Agriculture was established by the Federal Government of Nigeria in 1988. In addition to the traditional tripartite mission of universities which is teaching, research and community service, the university engages in the scientific transformation of agriculture and provision of services needed to raise the quality of life of rural dwellers. The University runs a collegiate system made up of ten colleges and 37 departments in addition to a postgraduate school which was established in 1996. The school is located7km along Makurdi-Gbajimba road on the North Bank side of Markurdi.
The University Library which is named after the pioneer vice-chancellor of the university Professor Francis Idachaba has five major divisions in the library namely; collection development, information and communication technology, readers services, serials and technical services divisions. In addition, the main library has established six college libraries in the colleges of fisheries, engineering, food science and technology, science, management sciences, veterinary medicine and veterinary teaching hospital.
The Library has a total collection of 41224 volumes of books covering agriculture, science/technology, and management sciences. Other materials include reference materials and postgraduate students’ theses and dissertations. There are also 2,542 volumes of journals. The library is connected to the internet and offers off line and online services in some databases like Access to Global Online Research in Agriculture (ACORA), Health Internetwork Access to research, Initiative (HINARI), EBSCO host and Online Aces to Research in the environment (OARE) it offers training opportunities to both staff and students. It has a strong inverter that can last for one week without public power supply, it also has Lan20. The Essential Electronic Agriculture Library (TEEAL) network locally (i.e. LAN). It has a National Information Technology Development Agency (NTDA) domain which is used as computer laboratory/workshop where ICT related activities are done. There are in addition two E-libraries. The one at the ground floor has 22 computers and is meant for undergraduate students while the one on the 1st floor is meant for postgraduate students and staff and has 33 computers (Tsegba, Dike and Agbo, 2015)
Benue State University (BSU), Makurdi was established in 1992 by the Benue State Government to augment the specialized academic offering of the University of Agriculture, Makurdi. The University runs a collegiate system that began with four faculties namely; Arts, Education, Science, Social Sciences. Presently, in addition to a postgraduate school which started in 1998/1999 academic session, Benue State University, Makurdi has seven faculties namely; arts, education, law, science, social sciences, management sciences, college of health sciences. The university is located in Makurdi along Gboko road.
Benue State University library founded in 1992 consists of the main library, the post graduate library and seven faculties’ libraries. The main library is located in the center of the main campus while the others are attached to the various faculties’ buildings. At inception, the library had about 600 volumes of books and 200 journals. Presently, all the libraries hold 66,235 volumes of books (Accession register of the library, 2016). The University has installed digital access and infrastructure with a network of computers, a server, VSAT equipment and high speed internet connectivity, which enhances easy access to electronic resources, e-journals and e-books. The facility is obtained in partnership with Open Society Initiative for West Africa (OSIWA) who trained BSU Library staff on networking. The Library has databases such as Health Internetwork Access to Research, Initiative (HINARI), Access to Research for Development and Innovation (ARDI), Access to Global Online Research on Agriculture (AGORA), Online Access to Research in the Environment (OARE) [Ocheibi,2012].
University of Mkar, Mkar on the other hand is a private Christian institution established by the Church of Christ in Sudan among the Tiv (NKST) to make a mark in the educational landscape of the nation. Founded in June, 2005, it is a model University that is technologically driven. It has strong passion for academic excellence that is committed to advancement of knowledge through quality teaching, research and holistic education that puts God at the center of all learning. The mission is that through learning the university can develop change agents in the academy, church and society, using knowledge based on God’s word for service. The university aims to develop a total person through education that is qualitative, comprehensive and relevant, and that propels the individual to be self-reliant. The University of Mkar operates a collegiate system comprising of three colleges; the college of food science technology, College of natural and applied science, college of social and management science, with various departments. The university library has sitting capacity or over 1000 students. It currently contains over 5000 volumes or books and a good numbers of journals and newspapers (University of Mkar; the vision booklet 2006:3).