ASSESSMENT OF POLIOMYELITIS IMMUNIZATION
Poliomyelitis immunization is a public health measure which prevents the death of children under 5years of age. Despite the benefits of this immunization, it has been reported that there is still resistance to polio immunization. It is based on this, that this study was undertaken to assess the level of acceptance of polio immunization in Kaduna State being one of the endemic States in Nigeria, This study was premised on Symbolic Interactionism and Conspiracy Theory. Survey and in-depth interviews were the techniques used for data collection. Four hundred respondents were selected and the collected data were analysed using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. The findings revealed that acceptance is generally high in the study area and is greatly influenced by many factors such as religion, income, educational attainment of the respondents, birth position of the children, gift as motivating factor, as well as the role of religious, community and health workers. The non-acceptance was found to be more common among the Muslims of low income status. This study recommends that detailed sensitization programme through various media facilities should be carried out periodically to emphasize the reasons for the importance of paying more attention to polio immunization.
1.1 Background of the Study
Poliomyelitis, is an infectious disease caused by poliovirus, a member of the genus Enterovirus. There are three serotypes of poliovirus: that is, 1, 2 and 3, these three sero types are mainly different in their virulence. The serotype 1 is the most virulent of the three types, while sero type 2 and 3 are more sporadic (National Primary Health Care Development Agency, 2015). Human cells contain specific protein receptors to which poliovirus may attach and thereby enter susceptible cells. The virus infects cells of the oropharynx, the tonsils, the lymph nodes of the neck, and the small intestines. Infection progresses through cycles of virus replication, resulting in destruction of the infected cells. Once infection is established, poliovirus can enter the bloodstream and invade the central nervous system through the blood/brain barrier, by spreading along nerve fibers, or by both routes (WHO, 1999). When non-immune persons are exposed to wild poliovirus (Wild Polio Virus is caused naturally and not caused by vaccine containing live virus) the results may include in apparent infection without symptoms, mild illness, aseptic meningitis, or paralytic poliomyelitis
The Poliovirus can be spread to others by droplets from the upper respiratory tract during the early days of infection. More commonly, infected persons pass large numbers of virus particles through their faeces, from where they may be spread indirectly, or directly to infect others .
Poliomyelitis is a serious public health problem. It has persisted in a few countries from where it has spread to a large number of countries and posed threat to health as it did earlier between the 1950‟s and 1980‟s. In the developing world, the disease presents a constant threat to under fives, resulting paralysis with devastating.