ASYMPTOMATIC BACTERIUM AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING ANTENATAL CLINIC. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY
Studies on asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women attending antenantal clinic of the General Hospital Ekwulobia was undertaken, hundred urine samples were collected then centrifriged and 1ml of the supernatant was inoculated on the prepared Nutient Agar and Mac Conkey agar then incubated at 370c for 48 hours. Pure colonies were obtained by sub culturing. Morphological and biochemical characterization of the isolates identified bacteria of the general Staphylococcus, Streptococcus,Proteus and Escherichia. The result showed that 72(72%) of the pregnant women are asymptomatic. E. coli was sensitive to Reflacine but resistant to Tarivid, Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to gentamycin and resistant to Nalidix acid. There is need for routine screening of urine of pregnant women as part of antenatal health care for pregnant women in Nigeria
Asymptomatic bacteriuria refers to the presence of bacteria in Urine. It is a conduction in which urine reveals a significant growth of pathogens that is greater than 105 bacteria/ml, but without the patient showing symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI) (Girbert et al; 2005).
This common during pregnancy. The apparent reduction in immunity of pregnant women appears to encourage the growth of both commensal and non-commensal microorganism (Scott et al; 1990).
The physiological increase in plasma volume during pregnancy decrease urine concentration and up to 70% pregnant woman develop glucosurea, which encourage bacteria growth in urine (Patterson et al; 1987 luces et al; 1993).
Pregnancy enhances the progression from asymptomatic bacteriuria which could lead to pyelonephrintis and adverse obstetric out comes such as prematurity, low birth weight (Connotly et al; 1999) and higher foetal mortality rates (Nicolle, 1994, Delzell et al; 2000) the adverse effects of undiagnosed asymptomatic bacteriuria on mother and child have made researchers to suggest routine culture screening for all pregnant women attending antenatal clinic (Kirlam, 2005) in order to prevent mother and child from any form of complication that may arise due to infection.
However, in many hospitals in developing countries including Nigeria, routine urine culture test is not carried out for antenatal patients. Probably due to cost implication and time factors for culture result (Usually 48 hour’s period) instead many clinicians opt for the strip urinalysis method for accessing urine in pregnant women.
The true picture of such urine specimen cannot be fully accessed as the strip cannot qualify the extent of infection in such a patient as well as provide antimicrobial therapy which is usually seen in the case of culture test. In many health centers in developing countries. The attention of clinicians and health care providers is usually on the presence of glucose and protein in urine specimens with less attention on possible asymptomatic infection.