CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF NATIONAL YOUTHS SERVICE CORPS TOWARDS ENHANCING NATIONAL INTEGRATION (A CASE STUDY OF ANAMBRA STATE)
Experience, training or Orientation is the power and test of every work done or to be done in human history. The National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) is the only means through which graduates can obtain the best training, orientation of up-bringing of the theoretical context of what they study and equally the challenges to face as an independent entity.
According to Oxford advance learners Dictionary 7th Edition it defines Orientation as training or information that is given before starting a new job, course etc. National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) has it’s emphasis on the idea of orientation and National Integration of graduates of various higher Institutions. With these orientation and Integration, graduate from all tribe, race and ethnic diversities are show how life should be after school and how perform job with the trainer’s supervision. Oxford advance learners Dictionary, Special Price Edition Saw Integration as act or process of mixing people who have previously been separated, usually because of colour, race, religion etc. Therefore National Youth Service Corps is a type of training and integration designed to expose and prepare graduates of higher institutions for this purpose, ie what they are likely to meet after graduation. The scheme or programme affords the opportunity of being familiarized and exposed to various culture, tradition and interaction and equally the experiences needed.
This study however is not aimed at looking at what is training is all about or the meaning of NYSC rather it is to critically assess the National Youth Service Corps towards enhancing National Integration, using Anambra State in Nigeria as a case study. The case study is a state in South East Nigeria which was created to promote integration of people from various race to enhance National Development. These graduates which are integrated and oriented will become managers of human resource and administrators of various ministries in the state and Nigerian at large.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
This research work is being conducted to find out or make a critical assessment of NYSC in Nigeria and in Anambra in particular. What NYSC has done or would do for the Nigeria graduates. The National Youth Service Corps is a programme designed to inculcate discipline to the Youths by instilling in them a tradition of industry and dedication and of patriotic and loyal service to the Nation in any situation in which they may find themselves. Secondly the raising of the moral tone of the youths by giving them the opportunity to learn about higher ideals of National achievement and social and cultural improvement. Thirdly the development of attitudes of mind and acquired suitable training, which will make them more amenable to mobilization in the national interest. A also the central focus of this scheme includes the development of common ties among the youths and the promotion of national unity by ensuring that the participants in the scheme are assigned to states other than their states of origin, or residence, that each group assigned to work together, is as representative of the country as possible. The participant the equally exposed to the mode of living of people in different parts of the country with a view to removing pre-judices, eliminating ignorance, and confirming at first hand the many similarities among Nigerian’s of all ethnic groups, the encouragement of the participants in the scheme to seek, at the end of their NYSC service, career employment all over the country thus promoting the free movement of high level manpower in the nation, and finally to induce employers to employ more readily than ever before qualified Nigeria’s irrespective of their state of origin.
Anambra State which is one of the five South East State was created in 1991 under the military regime of General Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida to further enhance Development through manpower procurement, basic infrastructural facilities and other basic necessary amenity Anambra has first creation in and second creation in the year 1991 with their capital at Awka. The orientation camp of NYSC in Anambra is located in Umuanya in Oyi Local Government has ruled Anambra Since it’s creation. Presently the seat is chaired by Peter Obi of all progressive grand Alliance “APGA” for second term.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It has been observed that some graduates have some misconception about this programme as provided by federal government. Some graduates for example equate the programme with holidays jobs or as three weeks picnic. Hence, the aims and the commitment is lacking and so the skills and experience to be gained may at the end not be acquired. Infact many of the graduates regards the camp allowances and monthly “Alawie” stipends as vital.
Again, there is reluctance among large numbers of employers to accepts and provide facilities necessary for meaningful service year. Their fear is that must of these graduates are inexperienced to hand certain delicate machines and tools without damaging them during their primary assignment, a situation in which student are not allowed to use certain equipments does not provide the desired motive needed to prepare them for the task ahead.
Also, some of these graduates are not supervised during their primary assignment at all and are not fully secured and protected, as most of them are deployed to a poor locality. All these are challenges which the scheme should addressed.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to assess critically on the extent of usefulness of National Youth Service Corps. In order to do this, the research work will aim at the following.
1. To find out whether the graduate participating in NYSC receive full orientation and training.
2. To find out whether the graduates participating in NYSC gain insight into and about national integration.
3. To determine whether NYSC helps to generate pool of indigenous trained manpower to meet the needs of the country’s economy.
4. To investigate whether NYSC has put in adequate machineries to secure and protects the participating graduates.
5. To determine whether the NYSC helps in securing and protecting the participating graduates in their various places of primary assignment.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
From the purpose of the study, it was assured that the scheme is completely different from SIWES, or ordinary long vacation employment of the under-graduate, it is a preparatory programme NYSC as at the time of it’s inception was limited to graduates of various institutions of higher in Nigeria. The scheme has succeeded in establishing a closer collaboration between institutions and industries, which is essential for preparing and integrating people ahead of their ethnic and cultural diversity. Heads of institutions of higher learning in the country have now realized the use fullness and invaluable contribution of NYSC in training graduates as a means of improving the quality of skilled manpower in Nigeria. A standard which the limited resources in the institution cannot provide.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In the process of carrying out this research work, the following research questions were used to guide the researcher. The study will attempt to answer to the following questions.
1. Do graduates who participates in NYSC receive adequate training and orientation?
2. Is NYSC helping in enhancing national integration and unity?
3. What machinery has NYSC put in place in generating a pool of indigenous trained manpower needed by the country?
4. Do the participation graduates receive adequate protection during this programme?
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
In as much as the study is specifically on the critical assessment of National Youth Service Corps towards enhancing National integration, based on this, there is need to carry out a comparative research with a particular state in Nigeria.
This study is limited to Anambra State which is one of the five South East state in Nigeria. The reason behind this restriction is that the researcher is a student facing both time and financial constraints.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
For the purpose of this, some technical and other terms had been used in the research work which may sound ambiguous. For simplicity, terms that may be new or strange to the readers are explained as they are meant to be under stood by the researcher.
NYSC: National Youth Service Corps, a programme designed for training and orientation of graduates against life challenges and for national integration.
Researcher: Used to mean the person who carried out the research work.
Training: A process that involves the acquisition of skills, concepts, rules or attitudes in order to improve present and future performance.
Performance: The ability to carry out duties and responsibilities demanded of their position.
Ethnic Group: Sharing a common origin, culture or language.
Integration: Commune (parts) into a whole bring or come into full membership of a community.
Mobilization: Assemble (troops etc) for active services.
Pre-Judices: Before the administration of justices.