During the last decade worldwide concern with global climate has highlighted the challenge faced by both industrialized and developing countries in maintaining a sustained process of development. Nigeria, like other developing countries, shares the need for fast economic growth given the current low standard of living and rising population. It also shares the global concern of protecting the environment.
Increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases has become one of the most hazardous impacts on our environment. It has resulted into an increase in the temperature of the earth (Akpojotor and Akporhonor, 2005). It is predicted that the global average temperature will rise by about 1.6 oC – 6 oC by the year 2100 if current trends of greenhouse gases emission continue (IPCC, 1995). This increase in the average temperature of the earth is termed global warming. It occurs when greenhouse gases trap the sun’s heat. When sunlight reaches the surface of the earth, some of it is absorbed by the earth’s surface and this warms the earth. It is a case of heat transfer since the earth’s surface is much cooler than the sun and radiates energy at much longer wavelengths than the sun. Some of these longer wavelengths are absorbed by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere before it can be lost to space. The absorption of this long wave radiant energy warms the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases also emit long wave radiation both upward to space and downward to the surface. The downward part of this long wave radiation emitted by the atmosphere is the greenhouse effect (Pearce, 1998)
The major greenhouse gas responsible for global warming is CO2. Atmospheric CO2 derived from multiple natural sources including volcanic out gassing, the combination of organic matter and the respiration processes of living anaerobic organisms. Apart from these natural phenomena, man-made sources include the burning of various fossil fuels for power generation in the industry, Agriculture, transportation, domestic uses etc (Albert, 1987). The growing belief is that increase in man-made sources of CO2 emissions are responsible for global warming, hence it is also known as anthropogenic climate change. These man-made sources depend on the economies of the various countries. This corroborates the report that the concentration of CO2 has increased substantially since the industrial revolution and is expected to continue to be so (Walter, 2004).