AN IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMMES
The reasons certain groups of people remain enriched by polio immunization services and why others reject them, have been a concern to researchers, some have attributed it to religious and traditional beliefs while others suggested that it is as a result in different attitude prediction and beliefs of people. The objective of the study is to examine the attitudes of people towards polio immunization in Argungu Local Government Kebbi State. The methodology employed was purely descriptive survey research. Quantitative research methods were adopted. The research covers Arugungu LGA. A total of 120 respondents were randomly sampled with the well structured questionnaires. Simple percentage was used to represent the data and cross tabulation with chi- square was used to test the hypothesis. The result showed that there Thus this research found out that poor quality services and lack of awareness are responsible for low level of polio immunization prevalence among rural dwellers and also that the lower the knowledge of polio immunization among people, the more likely they resist the polio vaccination. The research therefore recommended that the negative perception that the society has towards polio immunization has to change and one major tools for the change it proper orientation through the mass media and that the attitude of rural dwellers toward polio immunization has to be encouraged through their traditional leaders, the religious leaders, etc.
1.1 Background to the Study
Poverty, between 1960s and early 1970s was minimal as few people were below the poverty line in Nigeria (Ogwumike,2002). During this period, Nigeria enjoyed steady economic growth and relative stability. The economy and per capital income grew steady as agricultural industries and even public sector absorbed most of the labour force (Ogwumike,2002) The poverty incidence started rising in the late 1970s and early 1980s when human race was aroused by picture on the TV screens, of starving children, homeless couples, women in lettered nakedness, dying old men and mostly from the third world. Consequent upon these a conference on poverty was held in Nairobi, Kenya on the United Nation Development programme (UNDP) to discuss the problem of poverty in all its ramifications and to come out with ideas and prescriptions to tackle the menace of poverty at the end it was agreed that poverty is relative (UNDP,2011). In the mid 80s the poverty rate in Nigeria started rising for instance about 43% of the Nigerian population was living below poverty line between 1985 and 1986 (Ravallion and Badani, 1994). It rose to 53% and 61% in 1996 and 1997 respectively. By 1999, about 66% lived below poverty line, making Nigeria the 54th in the human poverty poorest nations in the world (CBN, 2003).
Over the years, Nigerian government had made different attempts at reducing the rate of poverty in the country. Different poverty alleviation programmes and projects were instituted to achieve this aim. Thus, directorate for roads and rural infrastructure (DFRRI) in 1986; Better life programme (BLP) in 1987; National directorate of employment (NDE) in 1987; family support programme (FSP) in 1993; family economic advancement programme (FEAP) in 1997, etc. were instituted (National Bureau of Statistics, 2010).