1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The kakaki is a two to three meter royal trumpet utilized in traditional African music, It is referred to as a “kakaki” in Nigeria, Niger, Chad, Burkina Faso, but called a “waza” in parts of Chad and Sudan, and a “malakat” in Ethiopia.
The kakaki is blown only by men in Hausa societies and it is generally reserved for specific occasions such as ceremonies at the Emirs palace.
It originally comes from Songhai cavalry around 15th century when the one-imposing empire founded by Askia Muhammad ruled over the Hausa state of Kano, Zazzau, Katsina, and Gobir.
The kakaki sound is associated with royalty and it is only played at events at the palace of the Emir or chief in Hausa societies. It is used as part of the sara, a weekly statement of power and authority, usually on Thursday evenings
The kakaki alongside other side-blown ivory or horn instruments such as algaita, farai, and kakaki transmit verbal praise of chiefs and emirs. All these instrument fulfill this role in combination with drums.
During coronations and high-caste ceremonies the kakaki is blown as a talking trumpet at the palace to herald the arrival of some senior council members, district heads, Princes and to palace officials or serve for signaling the entry of the Emir and his retinue.
Ostensibly, this metal instrument which is a bequest from songhay to the people of Northern Nigeria over six centuries ago had found its abode in the ancient city of Zaria, the head-quarters of Zazzau Emirate.
The Kakaki quarters, an enclave within the ancient city, has been existing for over six hundred years, nearly as old as the city itself. It was originally the place of residence for sarkin kakaki (chief of the trumpeters) and other royal trumpeters and praise singers during the reign of Habe dynasty. But kakaki quarters witnessed a huge transformation after the settlement of Madakin Zazzau Albarka, son of Mahammadu Makauu and Malam Ibrahim Mai Borno, a kanuri man, who came from
kukawa via Albarkawa. from the lineage of Malam Ibrahim Mai Borno, a Kanuri man who came from kukawa via kajuru.
Shortly after the Jihad in 1805. The area where they settled came to be known as Albarkawa from the lineage of Malam Ibrahim Mai Borno, popularly known as “Tsoho”, came some illustrious sons of Zazzau such as Waziri Umaru, Salanke Iyal and Ma‟aji Isyaku among others.
There had been at least five Sarkin Kakaki (chief of trumpeters) before a certain Abubakar was appointed Sarkin Kakaki by the Habe ruler of Zazzau, Muhammadu Makau in 1804. Sarkin Kakaki Abubakar lived in the kakaki quarters with his family and begot a son named Muhammadu Kauran Busa. But Abubakar was succeded by one Sama, who came from Katsina and was appointed by emir of Zazzau Malam Sambo when Sama died he was succeded as Sarkin Kakaki by Tanimu, a grandson of Abubakar through muhammadu Kauran Busa.
However, Tanimu was not followed by his son, Madakin kakaki Muuhammadu qaniyat, rather by Ibrahim, son of Sama.
At the emir‟s palace in Zaria, the kakaki and farai are sounded s the Emir enters the inner royal chamber the royal trumpeters led by Sarkin kakaki will herald the arrival of the Emir with the epithet; “Bijimi!, (thrice). Ga Shi a fili, gas hi a sarari. Allah ka taya maka. Annabi ka taya maka. kai kadai ka ke Sarki; kai kadai ka ke Bijimi, Ga adalin Sarki!”
A succession of council members, princes and courtiers approach him, now seated on his throne to pay the respects. The trumpeters will greet each dignitary with a particular appellation. Like in the case of Waziri, the kakaki would sound, “chediyar da babu kaya, waziri baban gwadabe,waziri ka fi mai abu iko!‟‟ or for Galadima, “Babba! (Thrice) Daudu Galadima, Shawaran gari wuce kunya, Babba Sha guna guni. Daudu karfin birni, Daudu rana da hazo!” for the Madaki, the sobriquet is. “Goje uban fadawa, kaura rabin gari!” takuna gigita maza, takuma ko gidan mutin kafi shi!” and “kura ba jinni Zuba, kaura goma zabuwa goma!” as the epithet.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The culture of trumpeting among the Hausa is getting extinct with the advent of religious and western civilization.
All the activities that present the arts of the people are getting eroded. Therefore, it is important to document the culture of trumpeting to preserve and disseminate it.