INFLUENCE OF GUIDANCE PROGRAMME ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF SS 2 STUDENTS IN TOTO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF NASARAWA
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Guidance and counseling as a discipline in education concerns itself with assisting students world-wide to function effectively by enabling them get over the difficulties which might prevent them achieve self-actualization in their academic pursuit. This stresses the fact that modern African children and youths
need guidance and counseling. But to be effective, guidance practices must be based on philosophies that reflect African thinking (Esen, 1977).
The National Policy on Education (NPE). In this document the need for the integration of the individual into a sound and effective citizens, and provision of equal educational opportunities for all citizens’ of the nation at primary, secondary and tertiary levels of education, both inside, and outside the formal school system, are clearly stated Contained also in The National Policy on education is the change from 6-5-2-3 system of education to the new 6-3-3-4 system of education. This change was the aftermath of the Curriculum Conference of 1969. Based on the philosophical assumption that although intellectual
cultivation is a primary function of education, educational objectives cannot be conceived of in solely intellectual terms, but must rather be conceived in terms of a far broader realization of the many facets of human personality. This is because it is the function of the school to develop in each individual the habits and powers whereby he will find his place and use that place to positively shape both himself and society. Educational goals should transcend the narrowly circumscribed limits of intellectual cultivation. It must include the training of the individual in the optimum use of the head, the heart, and hand. (Okafor, 2004).
It was at this backdrop that the national policy on education was re-designed/harmonized be geared towards self-realization, better human relationship, individual and national efficiency, effective citizenship national consciousness, national unity, as well as towards social, cultural, economic, political, scientific and technology progress (NPE, 1981; Okafor 1988).
In addition to the change in the school system the nation has witnessed a number of economical, technological, political and social changes in recent times, which tend to rock all spheres. The result is that the machine invented today becomes obsolete tomorrow. The solutions adopted today become out-dated
tomorrow. The courses popular today become replaced with new ones tomorrow. In situation such as this effective guidance services become an indispensable factor of an equation which will result in making students acquire better knowledge of themselves and their environment. The understanding of self and environment can facilitate technological progress.
Furthermore, the wind of change and innovation so evident in modern times and which has brought with it the multiplicity of occupations or careers make it mandatory that information be provided for students in all levels of our education system. To do this effectively, sincere efforts needed to be made to survey
and inform students about the available occupations. This need to supply students with information in different areas of life is even more urgent now. This is because some students in the Junior Secondary School (J.S.S) who cannot continue with academic work therefore must branch to other areas other than
“in-school-training” need information as to how to fit into the out-of-school vocational training. Information is equally needed for the senior secondary school (SSS) students who most also have information as to how to enter into disciplines where they are better fitted and the requirement for any given discipline. Adequate information service is necessary as its presence helps to strengthen individuals is not only realizing his potentials but also in fulfilling his dream.