DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A GIS BASED TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATION
The state of the traffic system is influenced by travel demand and traffic supply characteristics. Travel demand is defined by Roess et al. (1998) as the number of vehicles or people that desire to travel past a point during a specified period. The main traffic supply characteristic that influences traffic system performance is capacity. Capacity is defined as the maximum number of vehicles or persons that can reasonably be expected to be served in the given time period (Roess et al., 1998). Also traffic management measures influence traffic system performance. Traffic management in some cases enables a more effective use of the available capacity (direct influence). Moreover, in some cases capacity is increased or decreased or certain trips are stimulated or discouraged, for example by means of road pricing (indirect influence).
Traffic congestion is a phenomenon that is associated with urban environment all over the World (Atubi and Onokala, 2005d; Ogunbodede, 2007). This is because we need transport to move from one place to another, especially when trekking becomes inefficient. While traffic congestion has been managed very well in some developed countries, it has continued to defy solution in the developing world. The forecast of global traffic volume (GTV) shows that time phenomena would double between 1990 and year 2020 and again by 2050. This type of growth pattern, as envisaged by the end of year 2020 and 2050, is an indication of what the future congestion portends for the people living in urban environment (Engwitch, 1992). Traffic congestion is a condition on road networks that occurs as the use increases, and it is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, increased vehicular queuing, the most common example is the physical use of roads by vehicles (Atubi and Onokala, 2004a).Many urban centers in Nigeria suffer from inadequate facilities that could ensure smooth urban movement. This is because the rapid growth of cities anywhere in the world has impact not only for the landuse also for the spatial expansion. The increase in commuting distance has impact on trip attraction, fares paid by commuters and traffic build-up in some landuse areas (Lamata, 2008; Shopade, 2010). The level of urbanization in the developing world indicates that more people now live in cities than before. Cities with one million people and above, according to the United Nations forecast increased to over 300 by the year 2000 in the developing world. This trend will continue because of the rapid growth in population, resulting from improvement in health services and the multificarious functions performed by cities which have been another major attractive force especially in Warri metropolis. The situation as described above has its impact on traffic congestion in the cities of developing world. Thus, the activities which take place in them, make them generators and attractors of traffic, which of course has implications on mobility (Ogunsanya, 2002). Warri metropolishave been noted to be very busy with automobiles, especially during the peak periods. During such peak periods, traffic noise comes from vehicle engines, exhaust systems and horns. Busy urban roads generatebetween 70-85 decibels of noise, depending on the characteristics of the traffic, speedand type of road surface.